Prerequisites

About Kuryr SDN

Kuryr is a container network interface (CNI) plug-in solution that uses the Neutron and Octavia Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) services to provide networking for pods and Services.

Kuryr and OKD integration is primarily designed for OKD clusters running on RHOSP VMs. Kuryr improves the network performance by plugging OKD pods into RHOSP SDN. In addition, it provides interconnectivity between pods and RHOSP virtual instances.

Kuryr components are installed as pods in OKD using the openshift-kuryr namespace:

  • kuryr-controller - a single service instance installed on a master node. This is modeled in OKD as a Deployment object.

  • kuryr-cni - a container installing and configuring Kuryr as a CNI driver on each OKD node. This is modeled in OKD as a DaemonSet object.

The Kuryr controller watches the OKD API server for pod, service, and namespace create, update, and delete events. It maps the OKD API calls to corresponding objects in Neutron and Octavia. This means that every network solution that implements the Neutron trunk port functionality can be used to back OKD via Kuryr. This includes open source solutions such as Open vSwitch (OVS) and Open Virtual Network (OVN) as well as Neutron-compatible commercial SDNs.

Kuryr is recommended for OKD deployments on encapsulated RHOSP tenant networks to avoid double encapsulation, such as running an encapsulated OKD SDN over an RHOSP network.

If you use provider networks or tenant VLANs, you do not need to use Kuryr to avoid double encapsulation. The performance benefit is negligible. Depending on your configuration, though, using Kuryr to avoid having two overlays might still be beneficial.

Kuryr is not recommended in deployments where all of the following criteria are true:

  • The RHOSP version is less than 16.

  • The deployment uses UDP services, or a large number of TCP services on few hypervisors.

or

  • The ovn-octavia Octavia driver is disabled.

  • The deployment uses a large number of TCP services on few hypervisors.

Resource guidelines for installing OKD on RHOSP with Kuryr

When using Kuryr SDN, the pods, services, namespaces, and network policies are using resources from the RHOSP quota; this increases the minimum requirements. Kuryr also has some additional requirements on top of what a default install requires.

Use the following quota to satisfy a default cluster’s minimum requirements:

Table 1. Recommended resources for a default OKD cluster on RHOSP with Kuryr
Resource Value

Floating IP addresses

3 - plus the expected number of Services of LoadBalancer type

Ports

1500 - 1 needed per Pod

Routers

1

Subnets

250 - 1 needed per Namespace/Project

Networks

250 - 1 needed per Namespace/Project

RAM

112 GB

vCPUs

28

Volume storage

275 GB

Instances

7

Security groups

250 - 1 needed per Service and per NetworkPolicy

Security group rules

1000

Load balancers

100 - 1 needed per Service

Load balancer listeners

500 - 1 needed per Service-exposed port

Load balancer pools

500 - 1 needed per Service-exposed port

A cluster might function with fewer than recommended resources, but its performance is not guaranteed.

If RHOSP object storage (Swift) is available and operated by a user account with the swiftoperator role, it is used as the default backend for the OKD image registry. In this case, the volume storage requirement is 175 GB. Swift space requirements vary depending on the size of the image registry.

If you are using Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) version 16 with the Amphora driver rather than the OVN Octavia driver, security groups are associated with service accounts instead of user projects.

Take the following notes into consideration when setting resources:

  • The number of ports that are required is larger than the number of pods. Kuryr uses ports pools to have pre-created ports ready to be used by pods and speed up the pods' booting time.

  • Each network policy is mapped into an RHOSP security group, and depending on the NetworkPolicy spec, one or more rules are added to the security group.

  • Each service is mapped to an RHOSP load balancer. Consider this requirement when estimating the number of security groups required for the quota.

    If you are using RHOSP version 15 or earlier, or the ovn-octavia driver, each load balancer has a security group with the user project.

  • The quota does not account for load balancer resources (such as VM resources), but you must consider these resources when you decide the RHOSP deployment’s size. The default installation will have more than 50 load balancers; the clusters must be able to accommodate them.

    If you are using RHOSP version 16 with the OVN Octavia driver enabled, only one load balancer VM is generated; services are load balanced through OVN flows.

An OKD deployment comprises control plane machines, compute machines, and a bootstrap machine.

To enable Kuryr SDN, your environment must meet the following requirements:

  • Run RHOSP 13+.

  • Have Overcloud with Octavia.

  • Use Neutron Trunk ports extension.

  • Use openvswitch firewall driver if ML2/OVS Neutron driver is used instead of ovs-hybrid.

Increasing quota

When using Kuryr SDN, you must increase quotas to satisfy the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) resources used by pods, services, namespaces, and network policies.

Procedure
  • Increase the quotas for a project by running the following command:

    $ sudo openstack quota set --secgroups 250 --secgroup-rules 1000 --ports 1500 --subnets 250 --networks 250 <project>

Configuring Neutron

Kuryr CNI leverages the Neutron Trunks extension to plug containers into the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) SDN, so you must use the trunks extension for Kuryr to properly work.

In addition, if you leverage the default ML2/OVS Neutron driver, the firewall must be set to openvswitch instead of ovs_hybrid so that security groups are enforced on trunk subports and Kuryr can properly handle network policies.

Configuring Octavia

Kuryr SDN uses Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP)'s Octavia LBaaS to implement OKD services. Thus, you must install and configure Octavia components in RHOSP to use Kuryr SDN.

To enable Octavia, you must include the Octavia service during the installation of the RHOSP Overcloud, or upgrade the Octavia service if the Overcloud already exists. The following steps for enabling Octavia apply to both a clean install of the Overcloud or an Overcloud update.

The following steps only capture the key pieces required during the deployment of RHOSP when dealing with Octavia. It is also important to note that registry methods vary.

This example uses the local registry method.

Procedure
  1. If you are using the local registry, create a template to upload the images to the registry. For example:

    (undercloud) $ openstack overcloud container image prepare \
    -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/services-docker/octavia.yaml \
    --namespace=registry.access.redhat.com/rhosp13 \
    --push-destination=<local-ip-from-undercloud.conf>:8787 \
    --prefix=openstack- \
    --tag-from-label {version}-{product-version} \
    --output-env-file=/home/stack/templates/overcloud_images.yaml \
    --output-images-file /home/stack/local_registry_images.yaml
  2. Verify that the local_registry_images.yaml file contains the Octavia images. For example:

    ...
    - imagename: registry.access.redhat.com/rhosp13/openstack-octavia-api:13.0-43
      push_destination: <local-ip-from-undercloud.conf>:8787
    - imagename: registry.access.redhat.com/rhosp13/openstack-octavia-health-manager:13.0-45
      push_destination: <local-ip-from-undercloud.conf>:8787
    - imagename: registry.access.redhat.com/rhosp13/openstack-octavia-housekeeping:13.0-45
      push_destination: <local-ip-from-undercloud.conf>:8787
    - imagename: registry.access.redhat.com/rhosp13/openstack-octavia-worker:13.0-44
      push_destination: <local-ip-from-undercloud.conf>:8787

    The Octavia container versions vary depending upon the specific RHOSP release installed.

  3. Pull the container images from registry.redhat.io to the Undercloud node:

    (undercloud) $ sudo openstack overcloud container image upload \
      --config-file  /home/stack/local_registry_images.yaml \
      --verbose

    This may take some time depending on the speed of your network and Undercloud disk.

  4. Since an Octavia load balancer is used to access the OKD API, you must increase their listeners' default timeouts for the connections. The default timeout is 50 seconds. Increase the timeout to 20 minutes by passing the following file to the Overcloud deploy command:

    (undercloud) $ cat octavia_timeouts.yaml
    parameter_defaults:
      OctaviaTimeoutClientData: 1200000
      OctaviaTimeoutMemberData: 1200000

    This is not needed for RHOSP 13.0.13+.

  5. Install or update your Overcloud environment with Octavia:

    $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates \
      -e /usr/share/openstack-tripleo-heat-templates/environments/services-docker/octavia.yaml \
      -e octavia_timeouts.yaml

    This command only includes the files associated with Octavia; it varies based on your specific installation of RHOSP. See the RHOSP documentation for further information. For more information on customizing your Octavia installation, see installation of Octavia using Director.

    When leveraging Kuryr SDN, the Overcloud installation requires the Neutron trunk extension. This is available by default on director deployments. Use the openvswitch firewall instead of the default ovs-hybrid when the Neutron backend is ML2/OVS. There is no need for modifications if the backend is ML2/OVN.

  6. In RHOSP versions earlier than 13.0.13, add the project ID to the octavia.conf configuration file after you create the project.

    • To enforce network policies across services, like when traffic goes through the Octavia load balancer, you must ensure Octavia creates the Amphora VM security groups on the user project.

      This change ensures that required load balancer security groups belong to that project, and that they can be updated to enforce services isolation.

      This task is unnecessary in RHOSP version 13.0.13 or later.

      Octavia implements a new ACL API that restricts access to the load balancers VIP.

      1. Get the project ID

        $ openstack project show <project>
        Example output
        +-------------+----------------------------------+
        | Field       | Value                            |
        +-------------+----------------------------------+
        | description |                                  |
        | domain_id   | default                          |
        | enabled     | True                             |
        | id          | PROJECT_ID                       |
        | is_domain   | False                            |
        | name        | *<project>*                      |
        | parent_id   | default                          |
        | tags        | []                               |
        +-------------+----------------------------------+
      2. Add the project ID to octavia.conf for the controllers.

        1. Source the stackrc file:

          $ source stackrc  # Undercloud credentials
        2. List the Overcloud controllers:

          $ openstack server list
          Example output
          +--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+-----------------------+----------------+------------+
          │
          | ID                                   | Name         | Status | Networks
          | Image          | Flavor     |
          │
          +--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+-----------------------+----------------+------------+
          │
          | 6bef8e73-2ba5-4860-a0b1-3937f8ca7e01 | controller-0 | ACTIVE |
          ctlplane=192.168.24.8 | overcloud-full | controller |
          │
          | dda3173a-ab26-47f8-a2dc-8473b4a67ab9 | compute-0    | ACTIVE |
          ctlplane=192.168.24.6 | overcloud-full | compute    |
          │
          +--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+-----------------------+----------------+------------+
        3. SSH into the controller(s).

          $ ssh heat-admin@192.168.24.8
        4. Edit the octavia.conf file to add the project into the list of projects where Amphora security groups are on the user’s account.

          # List of project IDs that are allowed to have Load balancer security groups
          # belonging to them.
          amp_secgroup_allowed_projects = PROJECT_ID
      3. Restart the Octavia worker so the new configuration loads.

        controller-0$ sudo docker restart octavia_worker

Depending on your RHOSP environment, Octavia might not support UDP listeners. If you use Kuryr SDN on RHOSP version 13.0.13 or earlier, UDP services are not supported. RHOSP version 16 or later support UDP.

The Octavia OVN Driver

Octavia supports multiple provider drivers through the Octavia API.

To see all available Octavia provider drivers, on a command line, enter:

$ openstack loadbalancer provider list
Example output
+---------+-------------------------------------------------+
| name    | description                                     |
+---------+-------------------------------------------------+
| amphora | The Octavia Amphora driver.                     |
| octavia | Deprecated alias of the Octavia Amphora driver. |
| ovn     | Octavia OVN driver.                             |
+---------+-------------------------------------------------+

Beginning with RHOSP version 16, the Octavia OVN provider driver (ovn) is supported on OKD on RHOSP deployments.

ovn is an integration driver for the load balancing that Octavia and OVN provide. It supports basic load balancing capabilities, and is based on OpenFlow rules. The driver is automatically enabled in Octavia by Director on deployments that use OVN Neutron ML2.

The Amphora provider driver is the default driver. If ovn is enabled, however, Kuryr uses it.

If Kuryr uses ovn instead of Amphora, it offers the following benefits:

  • Decreased resource requirements. Kuryr does not require a load balancer VM for each service.

  • Reduced network latency.

  • Increased service creation speed by using OpenFlow rules instead of a VM for each service.

  • Distributed load balancing actions across all nodes instead of centralized on Amphora VMs.

You can configure your cluster to use the Octavia OVN driver after your RHOSP cloud is upgraded from version 13 to version 16.

Known limitations of installing with Kuryr

Using OKD with Kuryr SDN has several known limitations.

RHOSP general limitations

Using OKD with Kuryr SDN has several limitations that apply to all versions and environments:

  • Service objects with the NodePort type are not supported.

  • Clusters that use the OVN Octavia provider driver support Service objects for which the .spec.selector property is unspecified only if the .subsets.addresses property of the Endpoints object includes the subnet of the nodes or pods.

  • If the subnet on which machines are created is not connected to a router, or if the subnet is connected, but the router has no external gateway set, Kuryr cannot create floating IPs for Service objects with type LoadBalancer.

RHOSP version limitations

Using OKD with Kuryr SDN has several limitations that depend on the RHOSP version.

  • RHOSP versions before 16 use the default Octavia load balancer driver (Amphora). This driver requires that one Amphora load balancer VM is deployed per OKD service. Creating too many services can cause you to run out of resources.

    Deployments of later versions of RHOSP that have the OVN Octavia driver disabled also use the Amphora driver. They are subject to the same resource concerns as earlier versions of RHOSP.

  • Octavia RHOSP versions before 13.0.13 do not support UDP listeners. Therefore, OKD UDP services are not supported.

  • Octavia RHOSP versions before 13.0.13 cannot listen to multiple protocols on the same port. Services that expose the same port to different protocols, like TCP and UDP, are not supported.

RHOSP environment limitations

There are limitations when using Kuryr SDN that depend on your deployment environment.

Because of Octavia’s lack of support for the UDP protocol and multiple listeners, if the RHOSP version is earlier than 13.0.13, Kuryr forces pods to use TCP for DNS resolution.

In Go versions 1.12 and earlier, applications that are compiled with CGO support disabled use UDP only. In this case, the native Go resolver does not recognize the use-vc option in resolv.conf, which controls whether TCP is forced for DNS resolution. As a result, UDP is still used for DNS resolution, which fails.

To ensure that TCP forcing is allowed, compile applications either with the environment variable CGO_ENABLED set to 1, i.e. CGO_ENABLED=1, or ensure that the variable is absent.

In Go versions 1.13 and later, TCP is used automatically if DNS resolution using UDP fails.

musl-based containers, including Alpine-based containers, do not support the use-vc option.

RHOSP upgrade limitations

As a result of the RHOSP upgrade process, the Octavia API might be changed, and upgrades to the Amphora images that are used for load balancers might be required.

You can address API changes on an individual basis.

If the Amphora image is upgraded, the RHOSP operator can handle existing load balancer VMs in two ways:

  • Upgrade each VM by triggering a load balancer failover.

  • Leave responsibility for upgrading the VMs to users.

If the operator takes the first option, there might be short downtimes during failovers.

If the operator takes the second option, the existing load balancers will not support upgraded Octavia API features, like UDP listeners. In this case, users must recreate their Services to use these features.

If OKD detects a new Octavia version that supports UDP load balancing, it recreates the DNS service automatically. The service recreation ensures that the service default supports UDP load balancing.

The recreation causes the DNS service approximately one minute of downtime.

Control plane and compute machines

By default, the OKD installation process stands up three control plane and three compute machines.

Each machine requires:

  • An instance from the RHOSP quota

  • A port from the RHOSP quota

  • A flavor with at least 16 GB memory, 4 vCPUs, and 25 GB storage space

Compute machines host the applications that you run on OKD; aim to run as many as you can.

Bootstrap machine

During installation, a bootstrap machine is temporarily provisioned to stand up the control plane. After the production control plane is ready, the bootstrap machine is deprovisioned.

The bootstrap machine requires:

  • An instance from the RHOSP quota

  • A port from the RHOSP quota

  • A flavor with at least 16 GB memory, 4 vCPUs, and 25 GB storage space

Enabling Swift on RHOSP

Swift is operated by a user account with the swiftoperator role. Add the role to an account before you run the installation program.

If the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) object storage service, commonly known as Swift, is available, OKD uses it as the image registry storage. If it is unavailable, the installation program relies on the RHOSP block storage service, commonly known as Cinder.

If Swift is present and you want to use it, you must enable access to it. If it is not present, or if you do not want to use it, skip this section.

Prerequisites
  • You have a RHOSP administrator account on the target environment.

  • The Swift service is installed.

  • On Ceph RGW, the account in url option is enabled.

Procedure

To enable Swift on RHOSP:

  1. As an administrator in the RHOSP CLI, add the swiftoperator role to the account that will access Swift:

    $ openstack role add --user <user> --project <project> swiftoperator

Your RHOSP deployment can now use Swift for the image registry.

Verifying external network access

The OKD installation process requires external network access. You must provide an external network value to it, or deployment fails. Before you begin the process, verify that a network with the external router type exists in Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP).

Prerequisites
  • On RHOSP, the NeutronDhcpAgentDnsmasqDnsServers parameter must be configured to allow DHCP agents to forward instances' DNS queries. One way to set this parameter is to:

    1. Create a new environment file in the template directory.

    2. Provide parameter values in the file. For example:

      Sample neutron-dhcp-agent-dnsmasq-dns-servers.yaml file
      parameter_defaults:
        NeutronDhcpAgentDnsmasqDnsServers: ['<DNS_server_address_1>','<DNS_server_address_2']
    3. Include the environment file in your Overcloud deploy command. For example:

      $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e neutron-dhcp-agent-dnsmasq-dns-servers.yaml ...
Procedure
  1. Using the RHOSP CLI, verify the name and ID of the 'External' network:

    $ openstack network list --long -c ID -c Name -c "Router Type"
    Example output
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+-------------+
    | ID                                   | Name           | Router Type |
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+-------------+
    | 148a8023-62a7-4672-b018-003462f8d7dc | public_network | External    |
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+-------------+

A network with an external router type appears in the network list. If at least one does not, see Creating a default floating IP network and Creating a default provider network.

If the external network’s CIDR range overlaps one of the default network ranges, you must change the matching network ranges in the install-config.yaml file before you start the installation process.

The default network ranges are:

Network Range

machineNetwork

10.0.0.0/16

serviceNetwork

172.30.0.0/16

clusterNetwork

10.128.0.0/14

If the installation program finds multiple networks with the same name, it sets one of them at random. To avoid this behavior, create unique names for resources in RHOSP.

If the Neutron trunk service plug-in is enabled, a trunk port is created by default. For more information, see Neutron trunk port.

Defining parameters for the installation program

The OKD installation program relies on a file that is called clouds.yaml. The file describes Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) configuration parameters, including the project name, log in information, and authorization service URLs.

Procedure
  1. Create the clouds.yaml file:

    • If your RHOSP distribution includes the Horizon web UI, generate a clouds.yaml file in it.

      Remember to add a password to the auth field. You can also keep secrets in a separate file from clouds.yaml.

    • If your RHOSP distribution does not include the Horizon web UI, or you do not want to use Horizon, create the file yourself. For detailed information about clouds.yaml, see Config files in the RHOSP documentation.

      clouds:
        shiftstack:
          auth:
            auth_url: http://10.10.14.42:5000/v3
            project_name: shiftstack
            username: shiftstack_user
            password: XXX
            user_domain_name: Default
            project_domain_name: Default
        dev-env:
          region_name: RegionOne
          auth:
            username: 'devuser'
            password: XXX
            project_name: 'devonly'
            auth_url: 'https://10.10.14.22:5001/v2.0'
  2. If your RHOSP installation uses self-signed certificate authority (CA) certificates for endpoint authentication:

    1. Copy the certificate authority file to your machine.

    2. Add the cacerts key to the clouds.yaml file. The value must be an absolute, non-root-accessible path to the CA certificate:

      clouds:
        shiftstack:
          ...
          cacert: "/etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/ca.crt.pem"

      After you run the installer with a custom CA certificate, you can update the certificate by editing the value of the ca-cert.pem key in the cloud-provider-config keymap. On a command line, run:

      $ oc edit configmap -n openshift-config cloud-provider-config
  3. Place the clouds.yaml file in one of the following locations:

    1. The value of the OS_CLIENT_CONFIG_FILE environment variable

    2. The current directory

    3. A Unix-specific user configuration directory, for example ~/.config/openstack/clouds.yaml

    4. A Unix-specific site configuration directory, for example /etc/openstack/clouds.yaml

      The installation program searches for clouds.yaml in that order.

Obtaining the installation program

Before you install OKD, download the installation file on a local computer.

Prerequisites
  • You have a computer that runs Linux or macOS, with 500 MB of local disk space

Procedure
  1. Download installer from https://github.com/openshift/okd/releases

    The installation program creates several files on the computer that you use to install your cluster. You must keep the installation program and the files that the installation program creates after you finish installing the cluster. Both files are required to delete the cluster.

    Deleting the files created by the installation program does not remove your cluster, even if the cluster failed during installation. To remove your cluster, complete the OKD uninstallation procedures for your specific cloud provider.

  2. Extract the installation program. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ tar xvf openshift-install-linux.tar.gz
  3. From the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site, download your installation pull secret. This pull secret allows you to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OKD components.

    Using a pull secret from the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site is not required. You can use a pull secret for another private registry. Or, if you do not need the cluster to pull images from a private registry, you can use {"auths":{"fake":{"auth":"aWQ6cGFzcwo="}}} as the pull secret when prompted during the installation.

    If you do not use the pull secret from the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site:

    • Red Hat Operators are not available.

    • The Telemetry and Insights operators do not send data to Red Hat.

    • Content from the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog Container images registry, such as image streams and Operators, are not available.

Creating the installation configuration file

You can customize the OKD cluster you install on Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP).

Prerequisites
  • Obtain the OKD installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure
  1. Create the install-config.yaml file.

    1. Change to the directory that contains the installation program and run the following command:

      $ ./openshift-install create install-config --dir=<installation_directory> (1)
      1 For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name to store the files that the installation program creates.

      Specify an empty directory. Some installation assets, like bootstrap X.509 certificates have short expiration intervals, so you must not reuse an installation directory. If you want to reuse individual files from another cluster installation, you can copy them into your directory. However, the file names for the installation assets might change between releases. Use caution when copying installation files from an earlier OKD version.

    2. At the prompts, provide the configuration details for your cloud:

      1. Optional: Select an SSH key to use to access your cluster machines.

        For production OKD clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

      2. Select openstack as the platform to target.

      3. Specify the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) external network name to use for installing the cluster.

      4. Specify the floating IP address to use for external access to the OpenShift API.

      5. Specify a RHOSP flavor with at least 16 GB RAM to use for control plane and compute nodes.

      6. Select the base domain to deploy the cluster to. All DNS records will be sub-domains of this base and will also include the cluster name.

      7. Enter a name for your cluster. The name must be 14 or fewer characters long.

      8. Paste the pull secret that you obtained from the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. This field is optional.

  2. Modify the install-config.yaml file. You can find more information about the available parameters in the "Installation configuration parameters" section.

  3. Back up the install-config.yaml file so that you can use it to install multiple clusters.

    The install-config.yaml file is consumed during the installation process. If you want to reuse the file, you must back it up now.

Configuring the cluster-wide proxy during installation

Production environments can deny direct access to the internet and instead have an HTTP or HTTPS proxy available. You can configure a new OKD cluster to use a proxy by configuring the proxy settings in the install-config.yaml file.

Prerequisites
  • You have an existing install-config.yaml file.

  • You reviewed the sites that your cluster requires access to and determined whether any of them need to bypass the proxy. By default, all cluster egress traffic is proxied, including calls to hosting cloud provider APIs. You added sites to the Proxy object’s spec.noProxy field to bypass the proxy if necessary.

    The Proxy object status.noProxy field is populated with the values of the networking.machineNetwork[].cidr, networking.clusterNetwork[].cidr, and networking.serviceNetwork[] fields from your installation configuration.

    For installations on Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure, and Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP), the Proxy object status.noProxy field is also populated with the instance metadata endpoint (169.254.169.254).

  • If your cluster is on AWS, you added the ec2.<region>.amazonaws.com, elasticloadbalancing.<region>.amazonaws.com, and s3.<region>.amazonaws.com endpoints to your VPC endpoint. These endpoints are required to complete requests from the nodes to the AWS EC2 API. Because the proxy works on the container level, not the node level, you must route these requests to the AWS EC2 API through the AWS private network. Adding the public IP address of the EC2 API to your allowlist in your proxy server is not sufficient.

Procedure
  1. Edit your install-config.yaml file and add the proxy settings. For example:

    apiVersion: v1
    baseDomain: my.domain.com
    proxy:
      httpProxy: http://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> (1)
      httpsProxy: https://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> (2)
      noProxy: example.com (3)
    additionalTrustBundle: | (4)
        -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
        <MY_TRUSTED_CA_CERT>
        -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    ...
    1 A proxy URL to use for creating HTTP connections outside the cluster. The URL scheme must be http. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must not specify an httpProxy value.
    2 A proxy URL to use for creating HTTPS connections outside the cluster. If this field is not specified, then httpProxy is used for both HTTP and HTTPS connections. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must not specify an httpsProxy value.
    3 A comma-separated list of destination domain names, IP addresses, or other network CIDRs to exclude from proxying. Preface a domain with . to match subdomains only. For example, .y.com matches x.y.com, but not y.com. Use * to bypass the proxy for all destinations.
    4 If provided, the installation program generates a config map that is named user-ca-bundle in the openshift-config namespace that contains one or more additional CA certificates that are required for proxying HTTPS connections. The Cluster Network Operator then creates a trusted-ca-bundle config map that merges these contents with the Fedora CoreOS (FCOS) trust bundle, and this config map is referenced in the trustedCA field of the Proxy object. The additionalTrustBundle field is required unless the proxy’s identity certificate is signed by an authority from the FCOS trust bundle. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must provide the MITM CA certificate.

    The installation program does not support the proxy readinessEndpoints field.

  2. Save the file and reference it when installing OKD.

The installation program creates a cluster-wide proxy that is named cluster that uses the proxy settings in the provided install-config.yaml file. If no proxy settings are provided, a cluster Proxy object is still created, but it will have a nil spec.

Only the Proxy object named cluster is supported, and no additional proxies can be created.

Installation configuration parameters

Before you deploy an OKD cluster, you provide parameter values to describe your account on the cloud platform that hosts your cluster and optionally customize your cluster’s platform. When you create the install-config.yaml installation configuration file, you provide values for the required parameters through the command line. If you customize your cluster, you can modify the install-config.yaml file to provide more details about the platform.

After installation, you cannot modify these parameters in the install-config.yaml file.

The openshift-install command does not validate field names for parameters. If an incorrect name is specified, the related file or object is not created, and no error is reported. Ensure that the field names for any parameters that are specified are correct.

Required configuration parameters

Required installation configuration parameters are described in the following table:

Table 2. Required parameters
Parameter Description Values

apiVersion

The API version for the install-config.yaml content. The current version is v1. The installer may also support older API versions.

String

baseDomain

The base domain of your cloud provider. The base domain is used to create routes to your OKD cluster components. The full DNS name for your cluster is a combination of the baseDomain and metadata.name parameter values that uses the <metadata.name>.<baseDomain> format.

A fully-qualified domain or subdomain name, such as example.com.

metadata

Kubernetes resource ObjectMeta, from which only the name parameter is consumed.

Object

metadata.name

The name of the cluster. DNS records for the cluster are all subdomains of {{.metadata.name}}.{{.baseDomain}}.

String of lowercase letters, hyphens (-), and periods (.), such as dev. The string must be 14 characters or fewer long.

platform

The configuration for the specific platform upon which to perform the installation: aws, baremetal, azure, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}. For additional information about platform.<platform> parameters, consult the table for your specific platform that follows.

Object

Network configuration parameters

You can customize your installation configuration based on the requirements of your existing network infrastructure. For example, you can expand the IP address block for the cluster network or provide different IP address blocks than the defaults.

Only IPv4 addresses are supported.

Table 3. Network parameters
Parameter Description Values

networking

The configuration for the cluster network.

Object

You cannot modify parameters specified by the networking object after installation.

networking.networkType

The cluster network provider Container Network Interface (CNI) plug-in to install.

Either OpenShiftSDN or OVNKubernetes. The default value is OVNKubernetes.

networking.clusterNetwork

The IP address blocks for pods.

The default value is 10.128.0.0/14 with a host prefix of /23.

If you specify multiple IP address blocks, the blocks must not overlap.

An array of objects. For example:

networking:
  clusterNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
    hostPrefix: 23

networking.clusterNetwork.cidr

Required if you use networking.clusterNetwork. An IP address block.

An IPv4 network.

An IP address block in Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation. The prefix length for an IPv4 block is between 0 and 32.

networking.clusterNetwork.hostPrefix

The subnet prefix length to assign to each individual node. For example, if hostPrefix is set to 23 then each node is assigned a /23 subnet out of the given cidr. A hostPrefix value of 23 provides 510 (2^(32 - 23) - 2) pod IP addresses.

A subnet prefix.

The default value is 23.

networking.serviceNetwork

The IP address block for services. The default value is 172.30.0.0/16.

The OpenShift SDN and OVN-Kubernetes network providers support only a single IP address block for the service network.

An array with an IP address block in CIDR format. For example:

networking:
  serviceNetwork:
   - 172.30.0.0/16

networking.machineNetwork

The IP address blocks for machines.

If you specify multiple IP address blocks, the blocks must not overlap.

An array of objects. For example:

networking:
  machineNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.0.0.0/16

networking.machineNetwork.cidr

Required if you use networking.machineNetwork. An IP address block. The default value is 10.0.0.0/16 for all platforms other than libvirt. For libvirt, the default value is 192.168.126.0/24.

An IP network block in CIDR notation.

For example, 10.0.0.0/16.

Set the networking.machineNetwork to match the CIDR that the preferred NIC resides in.

Optional configuration parameters

Optional installation configuration parameters are described in the following table:

Table 4. Optional parameters
Parameter Description Values

additionalTrustBundle

A PEM-encoded X.509 certificate bundle that is added to the nodes' trusted certificate store. This trust bundle may also be used when a proxy has been configured.

String

compute

The configuration for the machines that comprise the compute nodes.

Array of MachinePool objects. For details, see the following "Machine-pool" table.

compute.architecture

Determines the instruction set architecture of the machines in the pool. Currently, heteregeneous clusters are not supported, so all pools must specify the same architecture. Valid values are amd64 (the default).

String

compute.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on compute machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

compute.name

Required if you use compute. The name of the machine pool.

worker

compute.platform

Required if you use compute. Use this parameter to specify the cloud provider to host the worker machines. This parameter value must match the controlPlane.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}

compute.replicas

The number of compute machines, which are also known as worker machines, to provision.

A positive integer greater than or equal to 2. The default value is 3.

controlPlane

The configuration for the machines that comprise the control plane.

Array of MachinePool objects. For details, see the following "Machine-pool" table.

controlPlane.architecture

Determines the instruction set architecture of the machines in the pool. Currently, heterogeneous clusters are not supported, so all pools must specify the same architecture. Valid values are amd64 (the default).

String

controlPlane.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on control plane machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

controlPlane.name

Required if you use controlPlane. The name of the machine pool.

master

controlPlane.platform

Required if you use controlPlane. Use this parameter to specify the cloud provider that hosts the control plane machines. This parameter value must match the compute.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}

controlPlane.replicas

The number of control plane machines to provision.

The only supported value is 3, which is the default value.

credentialsMode

The Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) mode. If no mode is specified, the CCO dynamically tries to determine the capabilities of the provided credentials, with a preference for mint mode on the platforms where multiple modes are supported.

Not all CCO modes are supported for all cloud providers. For more information on CCO modes, see the Cloud Credential Operator entry in the Red Hat Operators reference content.

Mint, Passthrough, Manual, or an empty string ("").

imageContentSources

Sources and repositories for the release-image content.

Array of objects. Includes a source and, optionally, mirrors, as described in the following rows of this table.

imageContentSources.source

Required if you use imageContentSources. Specify the repository that users refer to, for example, in image pull specifications.

String

imageContentSources.mirrors

Specify one or more repositories that may also contain the same images.

Array of strings

publish

How to publish or expose the user-facing endpoints of your cluster, such as the Kubernetes API, OpenShift routes.

Internal or External. The default value is External.

Setting this field to Internal is not supported on non-cloud platforms.

If the value of the field is set to Internal, the cluster will become non-functional. For more information, refer to BZ#1953035.

sshKey

The SSH key to authenticate access to your cluster machines.

For production OKD clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

For example, sshKey: ssh-ed25519 AAAA...

Additional Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) configuration parameters

Additional RHOSP configuration parameters are described in the following table:

Table 5. Additional RHOSP parameters
Parameter Description Values

compute.platform.openstack.rootVolume.size

For compute machines, the size in gigabytes of the root volume. If you do not set this value, machines use ephemeral storage.

Integer, for example 30.

compute.platform.openstack.rootVolume.type

For compute machines, the root volume’s type.

String, for example performance.

controlPlane.platform.openstack.rootVolume.size

For control plane machines, the size in gigabytes of the root volume. If you do not set this value, machines use ephemeral storage.

Integer, for example 30.

controlPlane.platform.openstack.rootVolume.type

For control plane machines, the root volume’s type.

String, for example performance.

platform.openstack.cloud

The name of the RHOSP cloud to use from the list of clouds in the clouds.yaml file.

String, for example MyCloud.

platform.openstack.externalNetwork

The RHOSP external network name to be used for installation.

String, for example external.

platform.openstack.computeFlavor

The RHOSP flavor to use for control plane and compute machines.

This property is deprecated. To use a flavor as the default for all machine pools, add it as the value of the type key in the platform.openstack.defaultMachinePlatform property. You can also set a flavor value for each machine pool individually.

String, for example m1.xlarge.

Optional RHOSP configuration parameters

Optional RHOSP configuration parameters are described in the following table:

Table 6. Optional RHOSP parameters
Parameter Description Values

compute.platform.openstack.additionalNetworkIDs

Additional networks that are associated with compute machines. Allowed address pairs are not created for additional networks.

A list of one or more UUIDs as strings. For example, fa806b2f-ac49-4bce-b9db-124bc64209bf.

compute.platform.openstack.additionalSecurityGroupIDs

Additional security groups that are associated with compute machines.

A list of one or more UUIDs as strings. For example, 7ee219f3-d2e9-48a1-96c2-e7429f1b0da7.

compute.platform.openstack.zones

RHOSP Compute (Nova) availability zones (AZs) to install machines on. If this parameter is not set, the installer relies on the default settings for Nova that the RHOSP administrator configured.

On clusters that use Kuryr, RHOSP Octavia does not support availability zones. Load balancers and, if you are using the Amphora provider driver, OKD services that rely on Amphora VMs, are not created according to the value of this property.

A list of strings. For example, ["zone-1", "zone-2"].

compute.platform.openstack.rootVolume.zones

For compute machines, the availability zone to install root volumes on. If you do not set a value for this parameter, the installer selects the default availability zone.

A list of strings, for example ["zone-1", "zone-2"].

controlPlane.platform.openstack.additionalNetworkIDs

Additional networks that are associated with control plane machines. Allowed address pairs are not created for additional networks.

A list of one or more UUIDs as strings. For example, fa806b2f-ac49-4bce-b9db-124bc64209bf.

controlPlane.platform.openstack.additionalSecurityGroupIDs

Additional security groups that are associated with control plane machines.

A list of one or more UUIDs as strings. For example, 7ee219f3-d2e9-48a1-96c2-e7429f1b0da7.

controlPlane.platform.openstack.zones

RHOSP Compute (Nova) availability zones (AZs) to install machines on. If this parameter is not set, the installer relies on the default settings for Nova that the RHOSP administrator configured.

On clusters that use Kuryr, RHOSP Octavia does not support availability zones. Load balancers and, if you are using the Amphora provider driver, OKD services that rely on Amphora VMs, are not created according to the value of this property.

A list of strings. For example, ["zone-1", "zone-2"].

controlPlane.platform.openstack.rootVolume.zones

For control plane machines, the availability zone to install root volumes on. If you do not set this value, the installer selects the default availability zone.

A list of strings, for example ["zone-1", "zone-2"].

platform.openstack.clusterOSImage

The location from which the installer downloads the FCOS image.

You must set this parameter to perform an installation in a restricted network.

An HTTP or HTTPS URL, optionally with an SHA-256 checksum.

For example, http://mirror.example.com/images/rhcos-43.81.201912131630.0-openstack.x86_64.qcow2.gz?sha256=ffebbd68e8a1f2a245ca19522c16c86f67f9ac8e4e0c1f0a812b068b16f7265d. The value can also be the name of an existing Glance image, for example my-rhcos.

platform.openstack.clusterOSImageProperties

Properties to add to the installer-uploaded ClusterOSImage in Glance. This property is ignored if platform.openstack.clusterOSImage is set to an existing Glance image.

You can use this property to exceed the default persistent volume (PV) limit for RHOSP of 26 PVs per node. To exceed the limit, set the hw_scsi_model property value to virtio-scsi and the hw_disk_bus value to scsi.

You can also use this property to enable the QEMU guest agent by including the hw_qemu_guest_agent property with a value of yes.

A list of key-value string pairs. For example, ["hw_scsi_model": "virtio-scsi", "hw_disk_bus": "scsi"].

platform.openstack.defaultMachinePlatform

The default machine pool platform configuration.

{
   "type": "ml.large",
   "rootVolume": {
      "size": 30,
      "type": "performance"
   }
}

platform.openstack.ingressFloatingIP

An existing floating IP address to associate with the Ingress port. To use this property, you must also define the platform.openstack.externalNetwork property.

An IP address, for example 128.0.0.1.

platform.openstack.apiFloatingIP

An existing floating IP address to associate with the API load balancer. To use this property, you must also define the platform.openstack.externalNetwork property.

An IP address, for example 128.0.0.1.

platform.openstack.externalDNS

IP addresses for external DNS servers that cluster instances use for DNS resolution.

A list of IP addresses as strings. For example, ["8.8.8.8", "192.168.1.12"].

platform.openstack.machinesSubnet

The UUID of a RHOSP subnet that the cluster’s nodes use. Nodes and virtual IP (VIP) ports are created on this subnet.

The first item in networking.machineNetwork must match the value of machinesSubnet.

If you deploy to a custom subnet, you cannot specify an external DNS server to the OKD installer. Instead, add DNS to the subnet in RHOSP.

A UUID as a string. For example, fa806b2f-ac49-4bce-b9db-124bc64209bf.

Custom subnets in RHOSP deployments

Optionally, you can deploy a cluster on a Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) subnet of your choice. The subnet’s GUID is passed as the value of platform.openstack.machinesSubnet in the install-config.yaml file.

This subnet is used as the cluster’s primary subnet. By default, nodes and ports are created on it. You can create nodes and ports on a different RHOSP subnet by setting the value of the platform.openstack.machinesSubnet property to the subnet’s UUID.

Before you run the OKD installer with a custom subnet, verify that your configuration meets the following requirements:

  • The subnet that is used by platform.openstack.machinesSubnet has DHCP enabled.

  • The CIDR of platform.openstack.machinesSubnet matches the CIDR of networking.machineNetwork.

  • The installation program user has permission to create ports on this network, including ports with fixed IP addresses.

Clusters that use custom subnets have the following limitations:

  • If you plan to install a cluster that uses floating IP addresses, the platform.openstack.machinesSubnet subnet must be attached to a router that is connected to the externalNetwork network.

  • If the platform.openstack.machinesSubnet value is set in the install-config.yaml file, the installation program does not create a private network or subnet for your RHOSP machines.

  • You cannot use the platform.openstack.externalDNS property at the same time as a custom subnet. To add DNS to a cluster that uses a custom subnet, configure DNS on the RHOSP network.

By default, the API VIP takes x.x.x.5 and the Ingress VIP takes x.x.x.7 from your network’s CIDR block. To override these default values, set values for platform.openstack.apiVIP and platform.openstack.ingressVIP that are outside of the DHCP allocation pool.

Sample customized install-config.yaml file for RHOSP with Kuryr

To deploy with Kuryr SDN instead of the default OpenShift SDN, you must modify the install-config.yaml file to include Kuryr as the desired networking.networkType and proceed with the default OKD SDN installation steps. This sample install-config.yaml demonstrates all of the possible Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) customization options.

This sample file is provided for reference only. You must obtain your install-config.yaml file by using the installation program.

apiVersion: v1
baseDomain: example.com
controlPlane:
  name: master
  platform: {}
  replicas: 3
compute:
- name: worker
  platform:
    openstack:
      type: ml.large
  replicas: 3
metadata:
  name: example
networking:
  clusterNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
    hostPrefix: 23
  machineNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.0.0.0/16
  serviceNetwork:
  - 172.30.0.0/16 (1)
  networkType: Kuryr
platform:
  openstack:
    cloud: mycloud
    externalNetwork: external
    computeFlavor: m1.xlarge
    apiFloatingIP: 128.0.0.1
    trunkSupport: true (2)
    octaviaSupport: true (2)
pullSecret: '{"auths": ...}'
sshKey: ssh-ed25519 AAAA...
1 The Amphora Octavia driver creates two ports per load balancer. As a result, the service subnet that the installer creates is twice the size of the CIDR that is specified as the value of the serviceNetwork property. The larger range is required to prevent IP address conflicts.
2 Both trunkSupport and octaviaSupport are automatically discovered by the installer, so there is no need to set them. But if your environment does not meet both requirements, Kuryr SDN will not properly work. Trunks are needed to connect the pods to the RHOSP network and Octavia is required to create the OKD services.

Cluster deployment on RHOSP provider networks

You can deploy your OKD clusters on Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) with a primary network interface on a provider network. Provider networks are commonly used to give projects direct access to a public network that can be used to reach the internet. You can also share provider networks among projects as part of the network creation process.

RHOSP provider networks map directly to an existing physical network in the data center. A RHOSP administrator must create them.

In the following example, OKD workloads are connected to a data center by using a provider network:

A diagram that depicts four OpenShift workloads on OpenStack. Each workload is connected by its NIC to an external data center by using a provider network.

OKD clusters that are installed on provider networks do not require tenant networks or floating IP addresses. The installer does not create these resources during installation.

Example provider network types include flat (untagged) and VLAN (802.1Q tagged).

A cluster can support as many provider network connections as the network type allows. For example, VLAN networks typically support up to 4096 connections.

You can learn more about provider and tenant networks in the RHOSP documentation.

RHOSP provider network requirements for cluster installation

Before you install an OKD cluster, your Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) deployment and provider network must meet a number of conditions:

  • The RHOSP networking service (Neutron) is enabled and accessible through the RHOSP networking API.

  • The RHOSP networking service has the port security and allowed address pairs extensions enabled.

  • The provider network can be shared with other tenants.

    Use the openstack network create command with the --share flag to create a network that can be shared.

  • The RHOSP project that you use to install the cluster must own the provider network, as well as an appropriate subnet.

    To create a network for a project that is named "openshift," enter the following command
    $ openstack network create --project openshift
    To create a subnet for a project that is named "openshift," enter the following command
    $ openstack subnet create --project openshift

    To learn more about creating networks on RHOSP, read the provider networks documentation.

    If the cluster is owned by the admin user, you must run the installer as that user to create ports on the network.

    Provider networks must be owned by the RHOSP project that is used to create the cluster. If they are not, the RHOSP Compute service (Nova) cannot request a port from that network.

  • Verify that the provider network can reach the RHOSP metadata service IP address, which is 169.254.169.254 by default.

    Depending on your RHOSP SDN and networking service configuration, you might need to provide the route when you create the subnet. For example:

    $ openstack subnet create --dhcp --host-route destination=169.254.169.254/32,gateway=192.0.2.2 ...
  • Optional: To secure the network, create role-based access control (RBAC) rules that limit network access to a single project.

Deploying a cluster that has a primary interface on a provider network

You can deploy an OKD cluster that has its primary network interface on an Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) provider network. .Prerequisites

  • Your Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) deployment is configured as described by "RHOSP provider network requirements for cluster installation".

Procedure
  1. In a text editor, open the install-config.yaml file.

  2. Set the value of the platform.openstack.apiVIP property to the IP address for the API VIP.

  3. Set the value of the platform.openstack.ingressVIP property to the IP address for the Ingress VIP.

  4. Set the value of the platform.openstack.machinesSubnet property to the UUID of the provider network subnet.

  5. Set the value of the networking.machineNetwork.cidr property to the CIDR block of the provider network subnet.

The platform.openstack.apiVIP and platform.openstack.ingressVIP properties must both be unassigned IP addresses from the networking.machineNetwork.cidr block.

Section of an installation configuration file for a cluster that relies on a RHOSP provider network
        ...
        platform:
          openstack:
            apiVIP: 192.0.2.13
            ingressVIP: 192.0.2.23
            machinesSubnet: fa806b2f-ac49-4bce-b9db-124bc64209bf
            (...)
        networking:
          machineNetwork:
          - cidr: 192.0.2.0/24

You cannot set the platform.openstack.externalNetwork or platform.openstack.externalDNS parameters while using a provider network for the primary network interface.

When you deploy the cluster, the installer uses the install-config.yaml file to deploy the cluster on the provider network.

You can add additional networks, including provider networks, to the platform.openstack.additionalNetworkIDs list.

After you deploy your cluster, you can attach pods to additional networks. For more information, see Understanding multiple networks.

Kuryr ports pools

A Kuryr ports pool maintains a number of ports on standby for pod creation.

Keeping ports on standby minimizes pod creation time. Without ports pools, Kuryr must explicitly request port creation or deletion whenever a pod is created or deleted.

The Neutron ports that Kuryr uses are created in subnets that are tied to namespaces. These pod ports are also added as subports to the primary port of OKD cluster nodes.

Because Kuryr keeps each namespace in a separate subnet, a separate ports pool is maintained for each namespace-worker pair.

Prior to installing a cluster, you can set the following parameters in the cluster-network-03-config.yml manifest file to configure ports pool behavior:

  • The enablePortPoolsPrepopulation parameter controls pool prepopulation, which forces Kuryr to add ports to the pool when it is created, such as when a new host is added, or a new namespace is created. The default value is false.

  • The poolMinPorts parameter is the minimum number of free ports that are kept in the pool. The default value is 1.

  • The poolMaxPorts parameter is the maximum number of free ports that are kept in the pool. A value of 0 disables that upper bound. This is the default setting.

    If your OpenStack port quota is low, or you have a limited number of IP addresses on the pod network, consider setting this option to ensure that unneeded ports are deleted.

  • The poolBatchPorts parameter defines the maximum number of Neutron ports that can be created at once. The default value is 3.

Adjusting Kuryr ports pools during installation

During installation, you can configure how Kuryr manages Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Neutron ports to control the speed and efficiency of pod creation.

Prerequisites
  • Create and modify the install-config.yaml file.

Procedure
  1. From a command line, create the manifest files:

    $ ./openshift-install create manifests --dir=<installation_directory> (1)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the name of the directory that contains the install-config.yaml file for your cluster.
  2. Create a file that is named cluster-network-03-config.yml in the <installation_directory>/manifests/ directory:

    $ touch <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-network-03-config.yml (1)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name that contains the manifests/ directory for your cluster.

    After creating the file, several network configuration files are in the manifests/ directory, as shown:

    $ ls <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-network-*
    Example output
    cluster-network-01-crd.yml
    cluster-network-02-config.yml
    cluster-network-03-config.yml
  3. Open the cluster-network-03-config.yml file in an editor, and enter a custom resource (CR) that describes the Cluster Network Operator configuration that you want:

    $ oc edit networks.operator.openshift.io cluster
  4. Edit the settings to meet your requirements. The following file is provided as an example:

    apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: Network
    metadata:
      name: cluster
    spec:
      clusterNetwork:
      - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
        hostPrefix: 23
      serviceNetwork:
      - 172.30.0.0/16
      defaultNetwork:
        type: Kuryr
        kuryrConfig:
          enablePortPoolsPrepopulation: false (1)
          poolMinPorts: 1 (2)
          poolBatchPorts: 3 (3)
          poolMaxPorts: 5 (4)
          openstackServiceNetwork: 172.30.0.0/15 (5)
    1 Set the value of enablePortPoolsPrepopulation to true to make Kuryr create new Neutron ports after a namespace is created or a new node is added to the cluster. This setting raises the Neutron ports quota but can reduce the time that is required to spawn pods. The default value is false.
    2 Kuryr creates new ports for a pool if the number of free ports in that pool is lower than the value of poolMinPorts. The default value is 1.
    3 poolBatchPorts controls the number of new ports that are created if the number of free ports is lower than the value of poolMinPorts. The default value is 3.
    4 If the number of free ports in a pool is higher than the value of poolMaxPorts, Kuryr deletes them until the number matches that value. Setting this value to 0 disables this upper bound, preventing pools from shrinking. The default value is 0.
    5 The openStackServiceNetwork parameter defines the CIDR range of the network from which IP addresses are allocated to RHOSP Octavia’s LoadBalancers.

    If this parameter is used with the Amphora driver, Octavia takes two IP addresses from this network for each load balancer: one for OpenShift and the other for VRRP connections. Because these IP addresses are managed by OKD and Neutron respectively, they must come from different pools. Therefore, the value of openStackServiceNetwork must be at least twice the size of the value of serviceNetwork, and the value of serviceNetwork must overlap entirely with the range that is defined by openStackServiceNetwork.

    The CNO verifies that VRRP IP addresses that are taken from the range that is defined by this parameter do not overlap with the range that is defined by the serviceNetwork parameter.

    If this parameter is not set, the CNO uses an expanded value of serviceNetwork that is determined by decrementing the prefix size by 1.

  5. Save the cluster-network-03-config.yml file, and exit the text editor.

  6. Optional: Back up the manifests/cluster-network-03-config.yml file. The installation program deletes the manifests/ directory while creating the cluster.

Setting compute machine affinity

Optionally, you can set the affinity policy for compute machines during installation. The installer does not select an affinity policy for compute machines by default.

You can also create machine sets that use particular RHOSP server groups after installation.

Control plane machines are created with a soft-anti-affinity policy.

You can learn more about RHOSP instance scheduling and placement in the RHOSP documentation.

Prerequisites
  • Create the install-config.yaml file and complete any modifications to it.

Procedure
  1. Using the RHOSP command-line interface, create a server group for your compute machines. For example:

    $ openstack \
        --os-compute-api-version=2.15 \
        server group create \
        --policy anti-affinity \
        my-openshift-worker-group

    For more information, see the server group create command documentation.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the installation program and create the manifests:

    $ ./openshift-install create manifests --dir=<installation_directory>

    where:

    installation_directory

    Specifies the name of the directory that contains the install-config.yaml file for your cluster.

  3. Open manifests/99_openshift-cluster-api_worker-machineset-0.yaml, the MachineSet definition file.

  4. Add the property serverGroupID to the definition beneath the spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value property. For example:

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_ID>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <node_role>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <node_role>
      name: <infrastructure_ID>-<node_role>
      namespace: openshift-machine-api
    spec:
      replicas: <number_of_replicas>
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_ID>
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_ID>-<node_role>
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_ID>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <node_role>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <node_role>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_ID>-<node_role>
        spec:
          providerSpec:
            value:
              apiVersion: openstackproviderconfig.openshift.io/v1alpha1
              cloudName: openstack
              cloudsSecret:
                name: openstack-cloud-credentials
                namespace: openshift-machine-api
              flavor: <nova_flavor>
              image: <glance_image_name_or_location>
              serverGroupID: aaaaaaaa-bbbb-cccc-dddd-eeeeeeeeeeee (1)
              kind: OpenstackProviderSpec
              networks:
              - filter: {}
                subnets:
                - filter:
                    name: <subnet_name>
                    tags: openshiftClusterID=<infrastructure_ID>
              securityGroups:
              - filter: {}
                name: <infrastructure_ID>-<node_role>
              serverMetadata:
                Name: <infrastructure_ID>-<node_role>
                openshiftClusterID: <infrastructure_ID>
              tags:
              - openshiftClusterID=<infrastructure_ID>
              trunk: true
              userDataSecret:
                name: <node_role>-user-data
              availabilityZone: <optional_openstack_availability_zone>
    1 Add the UUID of your server group here.
  5. Optional: Back up the manifests/99_openshift-cluster-api_worker-machineset-0.yaml file. The installation program deletes the manifests/ directory when creating the cluster.

When you install the cluster, the installer uses the MachineSet definition that you modified to create compute machines within your RHOSP server group.

Generating a key pair for cluster node SSH access

During an OKD installation, you can provide an SSH public key to the installation program. The key is passed to the Fedora CoreOS (FCOS) nodes through their Ignition config files and is used to authenticate SSH access to the nodes. The key is added to the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list for the core user on each node, which enables password-less authentication.

After the key is passed to the nodes, you can use the key pair to SSH in to the FCOS nodes as the user core. To access the nodes through SSH, the private key identity must be managed by SSH for your local user.

If you want to SSH in to your cluster nodes to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, you must provide the SSH public key during the installation process. The ./openshift-install gather command also requires the SSH public key to be in place on the cluster nodes.

Do not skip this procedure in production environments, where disaster recovery and debugging is required.

On clusters running Fedora CoreOS (FCOS), the SSH keys specified in the Ignition config files are written to the /home/core/.ssh/authorized_keys.d/core file. However, the Machine Config Operator manages SSH keys in the /home/core/.ssh/authorized_keys file and configures sshd to ignore the /home/core/.ssh/authorized_keys.d/core file. As a result, newly provisioned OKD nodes are not accessible using SSH until the Machine Config Operator reconciles the machine configs with the authorized_keys file. After you can access the nodes using SSH, you can delete the /home/core/.ssh/authorized_keys.d/core file.

Procedure
  1. If you do not have an existing SSH key pair on your local machine to use for authentication onto your cluster nodes, create one. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -N '' -f <path>/<file_name> (1)
    1 Specify the path and file name, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa, of the new SSH key. If you have an existing key pair, ensure your public key is in the your ~/.ssh directory.

    If you plan to install an OKD cluster that uses FIPS Validated / Modules in Process cryptographic libraries on the x86_64 architecture, do not create a key that uses the ed25519 algorithm. Instead, create a key that uses the rsa or ecdsa algorithm.

  2. View the public SSH key:

    $ cat <path>/<file_name>.pub

    For example, run the following to view the ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub public key:

    $ cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
  3. Add the SSH private key identity to the SSH agent for your local user, if it has not already been added. SSH agent management of the key is required for password-less SSH authentication onto your cluster nodes, or if you want to use the ./openshift-install gather command.

    On some distributions, default SSH private key identities such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa and ~/.ssh/id_dsa are managed automatically.

    1. If the ssh-agent process is not already running for your local user, start it as a background task:

      $ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"
      Example output
      Agent pid 31874

      If your cluster is in FIPS mode, only use FIPS-compliant algorithms to generate the SSH key. The key must be either RSA or ECDSA.

  4. Add your SSH private key to the ssh-agent:

    $ ssh-add <path>/<file_name> (1)
    1 Specify the path and file name for your SSH private key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa
    Example output
    Identity added: /home/<you>/<path>/<file_name> (<computer_name>)
Next steps
  • When you install OKD, provide the SSH public key to the installation program.

Enabling access to the environment

At deployment, all OKD machines are created in a Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP)-tenant network. Therefore, they are not accessible directly in most RHOSP deployments.

You can configure OKD API and application access by using floating IP addresses (FIPs) during installation. You can also complete an installation without configuring FIPs, but the installer will not configure a way to reach the API or applications externally.

Enabling access with floating IP addresses

Create floating IP (FIP) addresses for external access to the OKD API and cluster applications.

Procedure
  1. Using the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) CLI, create the API FIP:

    $ openstack floating ip create --description "API <cluster_name>.<base_domain>" <external_network>
  2. Using the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) CLI, create the apps, or Ingress, FIP:

    $ openstack floating ip create --description "Ingress <cluster_name>.<base_domain>" <external_network>
  3. Add records that follow these patterns to your DNS server for the API and Ingress FIPs:

    api.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>.  IN  A  <API_FIP>
    *.apps.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>. IN  A <apps_FIP>

    If you do not control the DNS server, you can add the record to your /etc/hosts file. This action makes the API accessible to only you, which is not suitable for production deployment but does allow installation for development and testing.

  4. Add the FIPs to the install-config.yaml file as the values of the following parameters:

    • platform.openstack.ingressFloatingIP

    • platform.openstack.apiFloatingIP

If you use these values, you must also enter an external network as the value of the platform.openstack.externalNetwork parameter in the install-config.yaml file.

You can make OKD resources available outside of the cluster by assigning a floating IP address and updating your firewall configuration.

Completing installation without floating IP addresses

You can install OKD on Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) without providing floating IP addresses.

In the install-config.yaml file, do not define the following parameters:

  • platform.openstack.ingressFloatingIP

  • platform.openstack.apiFloatingIP

If you cannot provide an external network, you can also leave platform.openstack.externalNetwork blank. If you do not provide a value for platform.openstack.externalNetwork, a router is not created for you, and, without additional action, the installer will fail to retrieve an image from Glance. You must configure external connectivity on your own.

If you run the installer from a system that cannot reach the cluster API due to a lack of floating IP addresses or name resolution, installation fails. To prevent installation failure in these cases, you can use a proxy network or run the installer from a system that is on the same network as your machines.

You can enable name resolution by creating DNS records for the API and Ingress ports. For example:

api.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>.  IN  A  <api_port_IP>
*.apps.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>. IN  A <ingress_port_IP>

If you do not control the DNS server, you can add the record to your /etc/hosts file. This action makes the API accessible to only you, which is not suitable for production deployment but does allow installation for development and testing.

Deploying the cluster

You can install OKD on a compatible cloud platform.

You can run the create cluster command of the installation program only once, during initial installation.

Prerequisites
  • Obtain the OKD installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure
  1. Change to the directory that contains the installation program and initialize the cluster deployment:

    $ ./openshift-install create cluster --dir=<installation_directory> \ (1)
        --log-level=info (2)
    
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the location of your customized ./install-config.yaml file.
    2 To view different installation details, specify warn, debug, or error instead of info.

    If the cloud provider account that you configured on your host does not have sufficient permissions to deploy the cluster, the installation process stops, and the missing permissions are displayed.

    When the cluster deployment completes, directions for accessing your cluster, including a link to its web console and credentials for the kubeadmin user, display in your terminal.

    Example output
    ...
    INFO Install complete!
    INFO To access the cluster as the system:admin user when using 'oc', run 'export KUBECONFIG=/home/myuser/install_dir/auth/kubeconfig'
    INFO Access the OpenShift web-console here: https://console-openshift-console.apps.mycluster.example.com
    INFO Login to the console with user: "kubeadmin", and password: "4vYBz-Ee6gm-ymBZj-Wt5AL"
    INFO Time elapsed: 36m22s

    The cluster access and credential information also outputs to <installation_directory>/.openshift_install.log when an installation succeeds.

    The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours, which are then renewed at that time. If the cluster is shut down before renewing the certificates and the cluster is later restarted after the 24 hours have elapsed, the cluster automatically recovers the expired certificates. The exception is that you must manually approve the pending node-bootstrapper certificate signing requests (CSRs) to recover kubelet certificates. See the documentation for Recovering from expired control plane certificates for more information.

    You must not delete the installation program or the files that the installation program creates. Both are required to delete the cluster.

Verifying cluster status

You can verify your OKD cluster’s status during or after installation.

Procedure
  1. In the cluster environment, export the administrator’s kubeconfig file:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig (1)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.

    The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server.

  2. View the control plane and compute machines created after a deployment:

    $ oc get nodes
  3. View your cluster’s version:

    $ oc get clusterversion
  4. View your Operators' status:

    $ oc get clusteroperator
  5. View all running pods in the cluster:

    $ oc get pods -A

Logging in to the cluster by using the CLI

You can log in to your cluster as a default system user by exporting the cluster kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server. The file is specific to a cluster and is created during OKD installation.

Prerequisites
  • You deployed an OKD cluster.

  • You installed the oc CLI.

Procedure
  1. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig (1)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
  2. Verify you can run oc commands successfully using the exported configuration:

    $ oc whoami
    Example output
    system:admin
Additional resources
Additional resources

Next steps