In OKD version Latest, you can install a cluster on your VMware vSphere instance by using installer-provisioned infrastructure.

Prerequisites

VMware vSphere infrastructure requirements

You must install the OKD cluster on a VMware vSphere version 6 instance that meets the requirements for the components that you use.

Table 1. Minimum supported vSphere version for VMware components
Component Minimum supported versions Description

Hypervisor

vSphere 6.5 with HW version 13

This version is the minimum version that Fedora CoreOS (FCOS) supports. See the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 supported hypervisors list.

Networking (NSX-T)

n/a

vSphere 6.5U3 or vSphere 6.7U2+ are required for OKD. Because previous versions of vSphere with NSX-T are not currently compatible with OKD, NSX-T is not supported. NSX-T certification is in process and will be supported in a future release.

Storage with in-tree drivers

vSphere 6.5 or vSphere 6.7

This plug-in creates vSphere storage by using the in-tree storage drivers for vSphere included in OKD and can be used when vSphere CSI drivers are not available.

Storage with vSphere CSI driver

vSphere 6.7U3 and later

This plug-in creates vSphere storage by using the standard Container Storage Interface. The vSphere CSI driver is provided and supported by VMware.

If you use a vSphere version 6.5 instance, consider upgrading to 6.7U2 before you install OKD.

You must ensure that the time on your ESXi hosts is synchronized before you install OKD. See Edit Time Configuration for a Host in the VMware documentation.

A limitation of using VPC is that the Storage Distributed Resource Scheduler (SDRS) is not supported. See link:https://vmware.github.io/vsphere-storage-for-kubernetes/documentation/faqs.html[vSphere Storage for Kubernetes FAQs] in the VMware documentation.

vCenter requirements

Before you install an OKD cluster on your vCenter that uses infrastructure that the installer provisions, you must prepare your environment.

Required vCenter account privileges

To install an OKD cluster in a vCenter, the installation program requires access to an account with privileges to read and create the required resources. Using an account that has administrative privileges is the simplest way to access all of the necessary permissions.

A user requires the following privileges to install an OKD cluster:

  • Datastore

    • Allocate space

  • Folder

    • Create folder

    • Delete folder

  • vSphere Tagging

    • All privileges

  • Network

    • Assign network

  • Resource

    • Assign virtual machine to resource pool

  • Profile-driven storage

    • All privileges

  • vApp

    • All privileges

  • Virtual machine

    • All privileges

For more information about creating an account with only the required privileges, see vSphere Permissions and User Management Tasks in the vSphere documentation.

Cluster resources

When you deploy an OKD cluster that uses installer-provisioned infrastructure, the installation program must be able to create several resources in your vCenter instance.

A standard OKD installation creates the following vCenter resources:

  • 1 Folder

  • 1 Tag category

  • 1 Tag

  • Virtual machines:

    • 1 template

    • 1 temporary bootstrap node

    • 3 control plane nodes

    • 3 compute machines

Although these resources use 856 GB of storage, the bootstrap node is destroyed during the cluster installation process. A minimum of 800 GB of storage is required to use a standard cluster.

If you deploy more compute machines, the OKD cluster will use more storage.

Cluster limits

Available resources vary between clusters. The number of possible clusters within a vCenter is limited primarily by available storage space and any limitations on the number of required resources. Be sure to consider both limitations to the vCenter resources that the cluster creates and the resources that you require to deploy a cluster, such as IP addresses and networks.

Networking requirements

In addition to using DHCP for the network, you must create the following networking resources before you install the OKD cluster:

Required IP Addresses

An installer-provisioned vSphere installation requires two static IP addresses:

  • The API address is used to access the cluster API.

  • The Ingress address is used for cluster ingress traffic.

You must provide these IP addresses to the installation program when you install the OKD cluster.

DNS records

You must create DNS records for two static IP addresses in the appropriate DNS server for the vCenter instance that hosts your OKD cluster. In each record, <cluster_name> is the cluster name and <base_domain> is the cluster base domain that you specify when you install the cluster. A complete DNS record takes the form: <component>.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>..

Table 2. Required DNS records
Component Record Description

API VIP

api.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>.

This DNS A/AAAA or CNAME record must point to the load balancer for the control plane machines. This record must be resolvable by both clients external to the cluster and from all the nodes within the cluster.

Ingress VIP

*.apps.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>.

A wildcard DNS A/AAAA or CNAME record that points to the load balancer that targets the machines that run the Ingress router pods, which are the worker nodes by default. This record must be resolvable by both clients external to the cluster and from all the nodes within the cluster.

Generating an SSH private key and adding it to the agent

If you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery on your cluster, you must provide an SSH key to both your ssh-agent and to the installation program.

In a production environment, you require disaster recovery and debugging.

You can use this key to SSH into the master nodes as the user core. When you deploy the cluster, the key is added to the core user’s ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list.

You must use a local key, not one that you configured with platform-specific approaches such as AWS key pairs.

Procedure
  1. If you do not have an SSH key that is configured for password-less authentication on your computer, create one. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -N '' \
        -f <path>/<file_name> (1)
    1 Specify the path and file name, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa, of the SSH key.

    Running this command generates an SSH key that does not require a password in the location that you specified.

    If you create a new SSH key pair, avoid overwriting existing SSH keys.

  2. Start the ssh-agent process as a background task:

    $ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"
    
    Agent pid 31874
  3. Add your SSH private key to the ssh-agent:

    $ ssh-add <path>/<file_name> (1)
    
    Identity added: /home/<you>/<path>/<file_name> (<computer_name>)
    1 Specify the path and file name for your SSH private key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa
Next steps
  • When you install OKD, provide the SSH public key to the installation program.

Obtaining the installation program

Before you install OKD, download the installation file on a local computer.

Prerequisites
  • A computer that runs Linux or macOS, with 500 MB of local disk space

Procedure
  1. Download installer from https://github.com/openshift/okd/releases

    The installation program creates several files on the computer that you use to install your cluster. You must keep both the installation program and the files that the installation program creates after you finish installing the cluster.

    Deleting the files created by the installation program does not remove your cluster, even if the cluster failed during installation. You must complete the OKD uninstallation procedures outlined for your specific cloud provider to remove your cluster entirely.

  2. Extract the installation program. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ tar xvf <installation_program>.tar.gz
  3. From the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site, download your installation pull secret as a .txt file. This pull secret allows you to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OKD components.

Adding vCenter root CA certificates to your system trust

Because the installation program requires access to your vCenter’s API, you must add your vCenter’s trusted root CA certificates to your system trust before you install an OKD cluster.

Procedure
  1. From the vCenter home page, download the vCenter’s root CA certificates. Click Download trusted root CA certificates in the vSphere Web Services SDK section. The <vCenter>/certs/download.zip file downloads.

  2. Extract the compressed file that contains the vCenter root CA certificates. The contents of the compressed file resemble the following file structure:

    certs
    ├── lin
    │   ├── 108f4d17.0
    │   ├── 108f4d17.r1
    │   ├── 7e757f6a.0
    │   ├── 8e4f8471.0
    │   └── 8e4f8471.r0
    ├── mac
    │   ├── 108f4d17.0
    │   ├── 108f4d17.r1
    │   ├── 7e757f6a.0
    │   ├── 8e4f8471.0
    │   └── 8e4f8471.r0
    └── win
        ├── 108f4d17.0.crt
        ├── 108f4d17.r1.crl
        ├── 7e757f6a.0.crt
        ├── 8e4f8471.0.crt
        └── 8e4f8471.r0.crl
    
    3 directories, 15 files
  3. Add the files for your operating system to the system trust. For example, on a Fedora operating system, run the following command:

    # cp certs/lin/* /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors
  4. Update your system trust. For example, on a Fedora operating system, run the following command:

    # update-ca-trust extract

Deploying the cluster

You can install OKD on a compatible cloud platform.

You can run the create cluster command of the installation program only once, during initial installation.

Prerequisites
  • Obtain the OKD installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure
  1. Run the installation program:

    $ ./openshift-install create cluster --dir=<installation_directory> \ (1)
        --log-level=info (2)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name to store the files that the installation program creates.
    2 To view different installation details, specify warn, debug, or error instead of info.

    Specify an empty directory. Some installation assets, like bootstrap X.509 certificates have short expiration intervals, so you must not reuse an installation directory. If you want to reuse individual files from another cluster installation, you can copy them into your directory. However, the file names for the installation assets might change between releases. Use caution when copying installation files from an earlier OKD version.

    Provide values at the prompts:

    1. Optional: Select an SSH key to use to access your cluster machines.

      For production OKD clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

    2. Select vsphere as the platform to target.

    3. Specify the name of your vCenter instance.

    4. Specify the user name and password for the vCenter account that has the required permissions to create the cluster.

      The installation program connects to your vCenter instance.

    5. Select the datacenter in your vCenter instance to connect to.

    6. Select the default vCenter datastore to use.

    7. Select the vCenter cluster to install the OKD cluster in.

    8. Select the network in the vCenter instance that contains the virtual IP addresses and DNS records that you configured.

    9. Enter the virtual IP address that you configured for control plane API access.

    10. Enter the virtual IP address that you configured for cluster ingress.

    11. Enter the base domain. This base domain must be the same one that you used in the DNS records that you configured.

    12. Enter a descriptive name for your cluster. The cluster name must be the same one that you used in the DNS records that you configured.

    13. Paste the pull secret that you obtained from the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. This field is optional.

    If the cloud provider account that you configured on your host does not have sufficient permissions to deploy the cluster, the installation process stops, and the missing permissions are displayed.

    When the cluster deployment completes, directions for accessing your cluster, including a link to its web console and credentials for the kubeadmin user, display in your terminal.

    The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours. You must keep the cluster running for 24 hours in a non-degraded state to ensure that the first certificate rotation has finished.

    You must not delete the installation program or the files that the installation program creates. Both are required to delete the cluster.

Installing the CLI by downloading the binary

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) in order to interact with OKD from a command-line interface. You can install oc on Linux, Windows, or macOS.

If you installed an earlier version of oc, you cannot use it to complete all of the commands in OKD Latest. Download and install the new version of oc.

Installing the CLI on Linux

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Linux by using the following procedure.

Procedure
  1. Navigate to https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/clients/oc/latest/ and choose the folder for your operating system and architecture.

  2. Download oc.tar.gz.

  3. Unpack the archive:

    $ tar xvzf <file>
  4. Place the oc binary in a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

Installing the CLI on Windows

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Windows by using the following procedure.

Procedure
  1. Navigate to https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/clients/oc/latest/ and choose the folder for your operating system and architecture.

  2. Download oc.zip.

  3. Unzip the archive with a ZIP program.

  4. Move the oc binary to a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open the command prompt and execute the following command:

    C:\> path

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

C:\> oc <command>

Installing the CLI on macOS

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on macOS by using the following procedure.

Procedure
  1. Navigate to https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/clients/oc/latest/ and choose the folder for your operating system and architecture.

  2. Download oc.tar.gz.

  3. Unpack and unzip the archive.

  4. Move the oc binary to a directory on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open a terminal and execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

Logging in to the cluster

You can log in to your cluster as a default system user by exporting the cluster kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server. The file is specific to a cluster and is created during OKD installation.

Prerequisites
  • Deploy an OKD cluster.

  • Install the oc CLI.

Procedure
  1. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig (1)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
  2. Verify you can run oc commands successfully using the exported configuration:

    $ oc whoami
    system:admin

Creating registry storage

After you install the cluster, you must create storage for the registry Operator.

Image registry removed during installation

On platforms that do not provide shareable object storage, the OpenShift Image Registry Operator bootstraps itself as Removed. This allows openshift-installer to complete installations on these platform types.

After installation, you must edit the Image Registry Operator configuration to switch the ManagementState from Removed to Managed.

The Prometheus console provides an ImageRegistryRemoved alert, for example:

"Image Registry has been removed. ImageStreamTags, BuildConfigs and DeploymentConfigs which reference ImageStreamTags may not work as expected. Please configure storage and update the config to Managed state by editing configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io."

Image registry storage configuration

The image-registry Operator is not initially available for platforms that do not provide default storage. After installation, you must configure your registry to use storage so that the Registry Operator is made available.

Instructions are shown for configuring a PersistentVolume, which is required for production clusters. Where applicable, instructions are shown for configuring an empty directory as the storage location, which is available for only non-production clusters.

Additional instructions are provided for allowing the image registry to use block storage types by using the Recreate rollout strategy during upgrades.

Configuring registry storage for VMware vSphere

As a cluster administrator, following installation you must configure your registry to use storage.

Prerequisites
  • Cluster administrator permissions.

  • A cluster on VMware vSphere.

  • Provision persistent storage for your cluster. To deploy a private image registry, your storage must provide ReadWriteMany access mode.

    vSphere volumes do not support the ReadWriteMany access mode. You must use a different storage backend, such as NFS, to configure the registry storage.

  • Must have "100Gi" capacity.

Procedure
  1. To configure your registry to use storage, change the spec.storage.pvc in the configs.imageregistry/cluster resource.

    When using shared storage such as NFS, it is strongly recommended to use the supplementalGroups strategy, which dictates the allowable supplemental groups for the Security Context, rather than the fsGroup ID. Refer to the NFS Group IDs documentation for details.

  2. Verify you do not have a registry Pod:

    $ oc get pod -n openshift-image-registry
    • If the storage type is emptyDIR, the replica number cannot be greater than 1.

    • If the storage type is NFS, you must enable the no_wdelay and root_squash mount options. For example:

      # cat /etc/exports
      /mnt/data *(rw,sync,no_wdelay,root_squash,insecure,fsid=0)
      sh-4.2# exportfs -rv
      exporting *:/mnt/data
  3. Check the registry configuration:

    $ oc edit configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io
    
    storage:
      pvc:
        claim:

    Leave the claim field blank to allow the automatic creation of an image-registry-storage PVC.

  4. Optional: Add a new storage class to a PV:

    1. Create the PV:

      $ oc create -f -
      apiVersion: v1
      kind: PersistentVolume
      metadata:
        name: image-registry-pv
      spec:
        accessModes:
          - ReadWriteMany
        capacity:
            storage: 100Gi
        nfs:
          path: /registry
          server: 172.16.231.181
        persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy: Retain
        storageClassName: nfs01
      $ oc get pv
    2. Create the PVC:

      $ oc create -n openshift-image-registry -f -
      apiVersion: "v1"
      kind: "PersistentVolumeClaim"
      metadata:
        name: "image-registry-pvc"
      spec:
        accessModes:
          - ReadWriteMany
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: 100Gi
        storageClassName: nfs01
        volumeMode: Filesystem
      $ oc get pvc -n openshift-image-registry

      Finally, add the name of your PVC:

      $ oc edit configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io -o yaml
      storage:
        pvc:
          claim: image-registry-pvc (1)
      1 Creating a custom PVC allows you to leave the claim field blank for default automatic creation of an image-registry-storage PVC.
  5. Check the clusteroperator status:

    $ oc get clusteroperator image-registry

Configuring block registry storage for VMware vSphere

To allow the image registry to use block storage types such as vSphere Virtual Machine Disk (VMDK) during upgrades as a cluster administrator, you can use the Recreate rollout strategy.

Procedure
  1. To set the image registry storage as a block storage type, patch the registry so that it uses the Recreate rollout strategy and runs with only 1 replica:

    $ oc patch config.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io/cluster --type=merge -p '{"spec":{"rolloutStrategy":"Recreate","replicas":1}}'
  2. Provision the PV for the block storage device, and create a PVC for that volume. The requested block volume uses the ReadWriteOnce (RWO) access mode.

  3. Edit the registry configuration so that it references the correct PVC.

For instructions about configuring registry storage so that it references the correct PVC, see Configuring the registry for vSphere.