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As a cluster administrator, you can configure multi-network for additional networks. You can specify multi-network policy for SR-IOV and macvlan additional networks. Macvlan additional networks are fully supported. Other types of additional networks, such as ipvlan, are not supported.

Support for configuring multi-network policies for SR-IOV additional networks is a Technology Preview feature and is only supported with kernel network interface cards (NICs). SR-IOV is not supported for Data Plane Development Kit (DPDK) applications. See technology preview features support scope for more information.

Configured network policies are ignored in IPv6 networks.

Differences between multi-network policy and network policy

Although the MultiNetworkPolicy API implements the NetworkPolicy API, there are several important differences:

  • You must use the MultiNetworkPolicy API:

    apiVersion: k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1beta1
    kind: MultiNetworkPolicy
  • You must use the multi-networkpolicy resource name when using the CLI to interact with multi-network policies. For example, you can view a multi-network policy object with the oc get multi-networkpolicy <name> command where <name> is the name of a multi-network policy.

  • You must specify an annotation with the name of the network attachment definition that defines the macvlan or SR-IOV additional network:

    apiVersion: k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1beta1
    kind: MultiNetworkPolicy
    metadata:
      annotations:
        k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/policy-for: <network_name>

    where:

    <network_name>

    Specifies the name of a network attachment definition.

Enabling multi-network policy for the cluster

As a cluster administrator, you can enable multi-network policy support on your cluster.

Prerequisites
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • Log in to the cluster with a user with cluster-admin privileges.

Procedure
  1. Create the multinetwork-enable-patch.yaml file with the following YAML:

    apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: Network
    metadata:
      name: cluster
    spec:
      useMultiNetworkPolicy: true
  2. Configure the cluster to enable multi-network policy:

    $ oc patch network.operator.openshift.io cluster --type=merge --patch-file=multinetwork-enable-patch.yaml
    Example output
    network.operator.openshift.io/cluster patched

Working with multi-network policy

As a cluster administrator, you can create, edit, view, and delete multi-network policies.

Prerequisites

  • You have enabled multi-network policy support for your cluster.

Creating a multi-network policy using the CLI

To define granular rules describing ingress or egress network traffic allowed for namespaces in your cluster, you can create a multi-network policy.

Prerequisites
  • Your cluster uses a cluster network provider that supports NetworkPolicy objects, such as the OpenShift SDN network provider with mode: NetworkPolicy set. This mode is the default for OpenShift SDN.

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You are logged in to the cluster with a user with cluster-admin privileges.

  • You are working in the namespace that the multi-network policy applies to.

Procedure
  1. Create a policy rule:

    1. Create a <policy_name>.yaml file:

      $ touch <policy_name>.yaml

      where:

      <policy_name>

      Specifies the multi-network policy file name.

    2. Define a multi-network policy in the file that you just created, such as in the following examples:

      Deny ingress from all pods in all namespaces

      This is a fundamental policy, blocking all cross-pod networking other than cross-pod traffic allowed by the configuration of other Network Policies.

      apiVersion: k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1beta1
      kind: MultiNetworkPolicy
      metadata:
        name: deny-by-default
        annotations:
          k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/policy-for: <network_name>
      spec:
        podSelector:
        ingress: []

      where:

      <network_name>

      Specifies the name of a network attachment definition.

      Allow ingress from all pods in the same namespace
      apiVersion: k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1beta1
      kind: MultiNetworkPolicy
      metadata:
        name: allow-same-namespace
        annotations:
          k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/policy-for: <network_name>
      spec:
        podSelector:
        ingress:
        - from:
          - podSelector: {}

      where:

      <network_name>

      Specifies the name of a network attachment definition.

      Allow ingress traffic to one pod from a particular namespace

      This policy allows traffic to pods labelled pod-a from pods running in namespace-y.

      apiVersion: k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1beta1
      kind: MultiNetworkPolicy
      metadata:
        name: allow-traffic-pod
        annotations:
          k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/policy-for: <network_name>
      spec:
        podSelector:
         matchLabels:
            pod: pod-a
        policyTypes:
        - Ingress
        ingress:
        - from:
          - namespaceSelector:
              matchLabels:
                 kubernetes.io/metadata.name: namespace-y

      where:

      <network_name>

      Specifies the name of a network attachment definition.

      Restrict traffic to a service

      This policy when applied ensures every pod with both labels app=bookstore and role=api can only be accessed by pods with label app=bookstore. In this example the application could be a REST API server, marked with labels app=bookstore and role=api.

      This example addresses the following use cases:

      • Restricting the traffic to a service to only the other microservices that need to use it.

      • Restricting the connections to a database to only permit the application using it.

        apiVersion: k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1beta1
        kind: MultiNetworkPolicy
        metadata:
          name: api-allow
          annotations:
            k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/policy-for: <network_name>
        spec:
          podSelector:
            matchLabels:
              app: bookstore
              role: api
          ingress:
          - from:
              - podSelector:
                  matchLabels:
                    app: bookstore

        where:

        <network_name>

        Specifies the name of a network attachment definition.

  2. To create the multi-network policy object, enter the following command:

    $ oc apply -f <policy_name>.yaml -n <namespace>

    where:

    <policy_name>

    Specifies the multi-network policy file name.

    <namespace>

    Optional: Specifies the namespace if the object is defined in a different namespace than the current namespace.

    Example output
    multinetworkpolicy.k8s.cni.cncf.io/deny-by-default created

If you log in to the web console with cluster-admin privileges, you have a choice of creating a network policy in any namespace in the cluster directly in YAML or from a form in the web console.

Editing a multi-network policy

You can edit a multi-network policy in a namespace.

Prerequisites
  • Your cluster uses a cluster network provider that supports NetworkPolicy objects, such as the OpenShift SDN network provider with mode: NetworkPolicy set. This mode is the default for OpenShift SDN.

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You are logged in to the cluster with a user with cluster-admin privileges.

  • You are working in the namespace where the multi-network policy exists.

Procedure
  1. Optional: To list the multi-network policy objects in a namespace, enter the following command:

    $ oc get multi-networkpolicy

    where:

    <namespace>

    Optional: Specifies the namespace if the object is defined in a different namespace than the current namespace.

  2. Edit the multi-network policy object.

    • If you saved the multi-network policy definition in a file, edit the file and make any necessary changes, and then enter the following command.

      $ oc apply -n <namespace> -f <policy_file>.yaml

      where:

      <namespace>

      Optional: Specifies the namespace if the object is defined in a different namespace than the current namespace.

      <policy_file>

      Specifies the name of the file containing the network policy.

    • If you need to update the multi-network policy object directly, enter the following command:

      $ oc edit multi-networkpolicy <policy_name> -n <namespace>

      where:

      <policy_name>

      Specifies the name of the network policy.

      <namespace>

      Optional: Specifies the namespace if the object is defined in a different namespace than the current namespace.

  3. Confirm that the multi-network policy object is updated.

    $ oc describe multi-networkpolicy <policy_name> -n <namespace>

    where:

    <policy_name>

    Specifies the name of the multi-network policy.

    <namespace>

    Optional: Specifies the namespace if the object is defined in a different namespace than the current namespace.

If you log in to the web console with cluster-admin privileges, you have a choice of editing a network policy in any namespace in the cluster directly in YAML or from the policy in the web console through the Actions menu.

Viewing multi-network policies using the CLI

You can examine the multi-network policies in a namespace.

Prerequisites
  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You are logged in to the cluster with a user with cluster-admin privileges.

  • You are working in the namespace where the multi-network policy exists.

Procedure
  • List multi-network policies in a namespace:

    • To view multi-network policy objects defined in a namespace, enter the following command:

      $ oc get multi-networkpolicy
    • Optional: To examine a specific multi-network policy, enter the following command:

      $ oc describe multi-networkpolicy <policy_name> -n <namespace>

      where:

      <policy_name>

      Specifies the name of the multi-network policy to inspect.

      <namespace>

      Optional: Specifies the namespace if the object is defined in a different namespace than the current namespace.

If you log in to the web console with cluster-admin privileges, you have a choice of viewing a network policy in any namespace in the cluster directly in YAML or from a form in the web console.

Deleting a multi-network policy using the CLI

You can delete a multi-network policy in a namespace.

Prerequisites
  • Your cluster uses a cluster network provider that supports NetworkPolicy objects, such as the OpenShift SDN network provider with mode: NetworkPolicy set. This mode is the default for OpenShift SDN.

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You are logged in to the cluster with a user with cluster-admin privileges.

  • You are working in the namespace where the multi-network policy exists.

Procedure
  • To delete a multi-network policy object, enter the following command:

    $ oc delete multi-networkpolicy <policy_name> -n <namespace>

    where:

    <policy_name>

    Specifies the name of the multi-network policy.

    <namespace>

    Optional: Specifies the namespace if the object is defined in a different namespace than the current namespace.

    Example output
    multinetworkpolicy.k8s.cni.cncf.io/default-deny deleted

If you log in to the web console with cluster-admin privileges, you have a choice of deleting a network policy in any namespace in the cluster directly in YAML or from the policy in the web console through the Actions menu.

Creating a default deny all multi-network policy

This is a fundamental policy, blocking all cross-pod networking other than network traffic allowed by the configuration of other deployed network policies. This procedure enforces a default deny-by-default policy.

If you log in with a user with the cluster-admin role, then you can create a network policy in any namespace in the cluster.

Prerequisites
  • Your cluster uses a cluster network provider that supports NetworkPolicy objects, such as the OpenShift SDN network provider with mode: NetworkPolicy set. This mode is the default for OpenShift SDN.

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You are logged in to the cluster with a user with cluster-admin privileges.

  • You are working in the namespace that the multi-network policy applies to.

Procedure
  1. Create the following YAML that defines a deny-by-default policy to deny ingress from all pods in all namespaces. Save the YAML in the deny-by-default.yaml file:

    apiVersion: k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1beta1
    kind: MultiNetworkPolicy
    metadata:
      name: deny-by-default
      namespace: default (1)
      annotations:
        k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/policy-for: <network_name> (2)
    spec:
      podSelector: {} (3)
      ingress: [] (4)
    1 namespace: default deploys this policy to the default namespace.
    2 podSelector: is empty, this means it matches all the pods. Therefore, the policy applies to all pods in the default namespace.
    3 network_name: specifies the name of a network attachment definition.
    4 There are no ingress rules specified. This causes incoming traffic to be dropped to all pods.
  2. Apply the policy by entering the following command:

    $ oc apply -f deny-by-default.yaml
    Example output
    multinetworkpolicy.k8s.cni.cncf.io/deny-by-default created

Creating a multi-network policy to allow traffic from external clients

With the deny-by-default policy in place you can proceed to configure a policy that allows traffic from external clients to a pod with the label app=web.

If you log in with a user with the cluster-admin role, then you can create a network policy in any namespace in the cluster.

Follow this procedure to configure a policy that allows external service from the public Internet directly or by using a Load Balancer to access the pod. Traffic is only allowed to a pod with the label app=web.

Prerequisites
  • Your cluster uses a cluster network provider that supports NetworkPolicy objects, such as the OpenShift SDN network provider with mode: NetworkPolicy set. This mode is the default for OpenShift SDN.

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You are logged in to the cluster with a user with cluster-admin privileges.

  • You are working in the namespace that the multi-network policy applies to.

Procedure
  1. Create a policy that allows traffic from the public Internet directly or by using a load balancer to access the pod. Save the YAML in the web-allow-external.yaml file:

    apiVersion: k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1beta1
    kind: MultiNetworkPolicy
    metadata:
      name: web-allow-external
      namespace: default
      annotations:
        k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/policy-for: <network_name>
    spec:
      policyTypes:
      - Ingress
      podSelector:
        matchLabels:
          app: web
      ingress:
        - {}
  2. Apply the policy by entering the following command:

    $ oc apply -f web-allow-external.yaml
    Example output
    multinetworkpolicy.k8s.cni.cncf.io/web-allow-external created

This policy allows traffic from all resources, including external traffic as illustrated in the following diagram:

Allow traffic from external clients

Creating a multi-network policy allowing traffic to an application from all namespaces

If you log in with a user with the cluster-admin role, then you can create a network policy in any namespace in the cluster.

Follow this procedure to configure a policy that allows traffic from all pods in all namespaces to a particular application.

Prerequisites
  • Your cluster uses a cluster network provider that supports NetworkPolicy objects, such as the OpenShift SDN network provider with mode: NetworkPolicy set. This mode is the default for OpenShift SDN.

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You are logged in to the cluster with a user with cluster-admin privileges.

  • You are working in the namespace that the multi-network policy applies to.

Procedure
  1. Create a policy that allows traffic from all pods in all namespaces to a particular application. Save the YAML in the web-allow-all-namespaces.yaml file:

    apiVersion: k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1beta1
    kind: MultiNetworkPolicy
    metadata:
      name: web-allow-all-namespaces
      namespace: default
      annotations:
        k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/policy-for: <network_name>
    spec:
      podSelector:
        matchLabels:
          app: web (1)
      policyTypes:
      - Ingress
      ingress:
      - from:
        - namespaceSelector: {} (2)
    1 Applies the policy only to app:web pods in default namespace.
    2 Selects all pods in all namespaces.

    By default, if you omit specifying a namespaceSelector it does not select any namespaces, which means the policy allows traffic only from the namespace the network policy is deployed to.

  2. Apply the policy by entering the following command:

    $ oc apply -f web-allow-all-namespaces.yaml
    Example output
    multinetworkpolicy.k8s.cni.cncf.io/web-allow-all-namespaces created
Verification
  1. Start a web service in the default namespace by entering the following command:

    $ oc run web --namespace=default --image=nginx --labels="app=web" --expose --port=80
  2. Run the following command to deploy an alpine image in the secondary namespace and to start a shell:

    $ oc run test-$RANDOM --namespace=secondary --rm -i -t --image=alpine -- sh
  3. Run the following command in the shell and observe that the request is allowed:

    # wget -qO- --timeout=2 http://web.default
    Expected output
    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
    <head>
    <title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
    <style>
    html { color-scheme: light dark; }
    body { width: 35em; margin: 0 auto;
    font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; }
    </style>
    </head>
    <body>
    <h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1>
    <p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
    working. Further configuration is required.</p>
    
    <p>For online documentation and support please refer to
    <a href="http://nginx.org/">nginx.org</a>.<br/>
    Commercial support is available at
    <a href="http://nginx.com/">nginx.com</a>.</p>
    
    <p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>
    </body>
    </html>

Creating a multi-network policy allowing traffic to an application from a namespace

If you log in with a user with the cluster-admin role, then you can create a network policy in any namespace in the cluster.

Follow this procedure to configure a policy that allows traffic to a pod with the label app=web from a particular namespace. You might want to do this to:

  • Restrict traffic to a production database only to namespaces where production workloads are deployed.

  • Enable monitoring tools deployed to a particular namespace to scrape metrics from the current namespace.

Prerequisites
  • Your cluster uses a cluster network provider that supports NetworkPolicy objects, such as the OpenShift SDN network provider with mode: NetworkPolicy set. This mode is the default for OpenShift SDN.

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You are logged in to the cluster with a user with cluster-admin privileges.

  • You are working in the namespace that the multi-network policy applies to.

Procedure
  1. Create a policy that allows traffic from all pods in a particular namespaces with a label purpose=production. Save the YAML in the web-allow-prod.yaml file:

    apiVersion: k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1beta1
    kind: MultiNetworkPolicy
    metadata:
      name: web-allow-prod
      namespace: default
      annotations:
        k8s.v1.cni.cncf.io/policy-for: <network_name>
    spec:
      podSelector:
        matchLabels:
          app: web (1)
      policyTypes:
      - Ingress
      ingress:
      - from:
        - namespaceSelector:
            matchLabels:
              purpose: production (2)
    1 Applies the policy only to app:web pods in the default namespace.
    2 Restricts traffic to only pods in namespaces that have the label purpose=production.
  2. Apply the policy by entering the following command:

    $ oc apply -f web-allow-prod.yaml
    Example output
    multinetworkpolicy.k8s.cni.cncf.io/web-allow-prod created
Verification
  1. Start a web service in the default namespace by entering the following command:

    $ oc run web --namespace=default --image=nginx --labels="app=web" --expose --port=80
  2. Run the following command to create the prod namespace:

    $ oc create namespace prod
  3. Run the following command to label the prod namespace:

    $ oc label namespace/prod purpose=production
  4. Run the following command to create the dev namespace:

    $ oc create namespace dev
  5. Run the following command to label the dev namespace:

    $ oc label namespace/dev purpose=testing
  6. Run the following command to deploy an alpine image in the dev namespace and to start a shell:

    $ oc run test-$RANDOM --namespace=dev --rm -i -t --image=alpine -- sh
  7. Run the following command in the shell and observe that the request is blocked:

    # wget -qO- --timeout=2 http://web.default
    Expected output
    wget: download timed out
  8. Run the following command to deploy an alpine image in the prod namespace and start a shell:

    $ oc run test-$RANDOM --namespace=prod --rm -i -t --image=alpine -- sh
  9. Run the following command in the shell and observe that the request is allowed:

    # wget -qO- --timeout=2 http://web.default
    Expected output
    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
    <head>
    <title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
    <style>
    html { color-scheme: light dark; }
    body { width: 35em; margin: 0 auto;
    font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; }
    </style>
    </head>
    <body>
    <h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1>
    <p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
    working. Further configuration is required.</p>
    
    <p>For online documentation and support please refer to
    <a href="http://nginx.org/">nginx.org</a>.<br/>
    Commercial support is available at
    <a href="http://nginx.com/">nginx.com</a>.</p>
    
    <p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>
    </body>
    </html>