oc get route oauth-openshift -n openshift-authentication -o json | jq .spec.host
For users to interact with OKD, they must first authenticate to the cluster. The authentication layer identifies the user associated with requests to the OKD API. The authorization layer then uses information about the requesting user to determine if the request is allowed.
As an administrator, you can configure authentication for OKD.
A user in OKD is an entity that can make requests to the OKD API. An OKD user object represents an actor which can be granted permissions in the system by adding roles to them or to their groups. Typically, this represents the account of a developer or administrator that is interacting with OKD.
Several types of users can exist:
This is the way most interactive OKD users are
represented. Regular users are created automatically in the system upon
first login or can be created via the API. Regular users are represented
Many of these are created automatically when the infrastructure
is defined, mainly for the purpose of enabling the infrastructure to
interact with the API securely. They include a cluster administrator
(with access to everything), a per-node user, users for use by routers
and registries, and various others. Finally, there is an
These are special system users associated with projects; some are created automatically when
the project is first created, while project administrators can create more
for the purpose of defining access to the contents of each project.
Service accounts are represented with the
Each user must authenticate in
some way in order to access OKD. API requests with no authentication
or invalid authentication are authenticated as requests by the
system user. Once authenticated, policy determines what the user is
authorized to do.
A user can be assigned to one or more groups, each of which represent a certain set of users. Groups are useful when managing authorization policies to grant permissions to multiple users at once, for example allowing access to objects within a project, versus granting them to users individually.
In addition to explicitly defined groups, there are also system groups, or virtual groups, that are automatically provisioned by the cluster.
The following default virtual groups are most important:
Automatically associated with all authenticated users.
Automatically associated with all users authenticated with an OAuth access token.
Automatically associated with all unauthenticated users.
Requests to the OKD API are authenticated using the following methods:
Obtained from the OKD OAuth server using the
Sent as an
Authorization: Bearer… header.
Sent as a websocket subprotocol header in the form
base64url.bearer.authorization.k8s.io.<base64url-encoded-token> for websocket
Requires an HTTPS connection to the API server.
Verified by the API server against a trusted certificate authority bundle.
The API server creates and distributes certificates to controllers to authenticate themselves.
Any request with an invalid access token or an invalid certificate is rejected by the authentication layer with a 401 error.
If no access token or certificate is presented, the authentication layer assigns
system:anonymous virtual user and the
group to the request. This allows the authorization layer to determine which
requests, if any, an anonymous user is allowed to make.
The OKD master includes a built-in OAuth server. Users obtain OAuth access tokens to authenticate themselves to the API.
When a person requests a new OAuth token, the OAuth server uses the configured identity provider to determine the identity of the person making the request.
It then determines what user that identity maps to, creates an access token for that user, and returns the token for use.
Every request for an OAuth token must specify the OAuth client that will receive and use the token. The following OAuth clients are automatically created when starting the OKD API:
Requests tokens at
Requests tokens with a user-agent that can handle
<namespace_route> refers to the namespace’s route. This is found by running the following command.
All requests for OAuth tokens involve a request to
<namespace_route>/oauth/authorize. Most authentication integrations place an
authenticating proxy in front of this endpoint, or configure
OKD to validate credentials against a backing identity provider.
<namespace_route>/oauth/authorize can come from user-agents that
cannot display interactive login pages, such as the CLI. Therefore,
OKD supports authenticating using a
challenge in addition to interactive login flows.
If an authenticating proxy is placed in front of the
<namespace_route>/oauth/authorize endpoint, it sends unauthenticated,
WWW-Authenticate challenges rather than
displaying an interactive login page or redirecting to an interactive
To prevent cross-site request forgery (CSRF) attacks against browser
clients, only send Basic authentication challenges with if a
If the authenticating proxy cannot support
You can configure a request to the OKD API to act as though it originated from another user. For more information, see User impersonation in the Kubernetes documentation.
OKD captures the following Prometheus system metrics during authentication attempts:
openshift_auth_basic_password_count counts the number of
oc login user name and password attempts.
openshift_auth_basic_password_count_result counts the number of
oc login user name and password attempts by result,
openshift_auth_form_password_count counts the number of web console login attempts.
openshift_auth_form_password_count_result counts the number of web console login attempts by result,
openshift_auth_password_total counts the total number of
oc login and web console login attempts.