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Prerequisites

AWS government regions

OKD supports deploying a cluster to an AWS GovCloud (US) region.

The following AWS GovCloud partitions are supported:

  • us-gov-east-1

  • us-gov-west-1

Installation requirements

Before you can install the cluster, you must:

  • Provide an existing private AWS VPC and subnets to host the cluster.

    Public zones are not supported in Route 53 in AWS GovCloud. As a result, clusters must be private when you deploy to an AWS government region.

  • Manually create the installation configuration file (install-config.yaml).

Private clusters

You can deploy a private OKD cluster that does not expose external endpoints. Private clusters are accessible from only an internal network and are not visible to the internet.

Public zones are not supported in Route 53 in an AWS GovCloud Region. Therefore, clusters must be private if they are deployed to an AWS GovCloud Region.

By default, OKD is provisioned to use publicly-accessible DNS and endpoints. A private cluster sets the DNS, Ingress Controller, and API server to private when you deploy your cluster. This means that the cluster resources are only accessible from your internal network and are not visible to the internet.

If the cluster has any public subnets, load balancer services created by administrators might be publicly accessible. To ensure cluster security, verify that these services are explicitly annotated as private.

To deploy a private cluster, you must:

  • Use existing networking that meets your requirements. Your cluster resources might be shared between other clusters on the network.

  • Deploy from a machine that has access to:

    • The API services for the cloud to which you provision.

    • The hosts on the network that you provision.

    • The internet to obtain installation media.

You can use any machine that meets these access requirements and follows your company’s guidelines. For example, this machine can be a bastion host on your cloud network or a machine that has access to the network through a VPN.

Private clusters in AWS

To create a private cluster on Amazon Web Services (AWS), you must provide an existing private VPC and subnets to host the cluster. The installation program must also be able to resolve the DNS records that the cluster requires. The installation program configures the Ingress Operator and API server for access from only the private network.

The cluster still requires access to internet to access the AWS APIs.

The following items are not required or created when you install a private cluster:

  • Public subnets

  • Public load balancers, which support public ingress

  • A public Route 53 zone that matches the baseDomain for the cluster

The installation program does use the baseDomain that you specify to create a private Route 53 zone and the required records for the cluster. The cluster is configured so that the Operators do not create public records for the cluster and all cluster machines are placed in the private subnets that you specify.

Limitations

The ability to add public functionality to a private cluster is limited.

  • You cannot make the Kubernetes API endpoints public after installation without taking additional actions, including creating public subnets in the VPC for each availability zone in use, creating a public load balancer, and configuring the control plane security groups to allow traffic from the internet on 6443 (Kubernetes API port).

  • If you use a public Service type load balancer, you must tag a public subnet in each availability zone with kubernetes.io/cluster/<cluster-infra-id>: shared so that AWS can use them to create public load balancers.

About using a custom VPC

In OKD 4, you can deploy a cluster into existing subnets in an existing Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) in Amazon Web Services (AWS). By deploying OKD into an existing AWS VPC, you might be able to avoid limit constraints in new accounts or more easily abide by the operational constraints that your company’s guidelines set. If you cannot obtain the infrastructure creation permissions that are required to create the VPC yourself, use this installation option.

Because the installation program cannot know what other components are also in your existing subnets, it cannot choose subnet CIDRs and so forth on your behalf. You must configure networking for the subnets that you install your cluster to yourself.

Requirements for using your VPC

The installation program no longer creates the following components:

  • Internet gateways

  • NAT gateways

  • Subnets

  • Route tables

  • VPCs

  • VPC DHCP options

  • VPC endpoints

The installation program requires that you use the cloud-provided DNS server. Using a custom DNS server is not supported and causes the installation to fail.

If you use a custom VPC, you must correctly configure it and its subnets for the installation program and the cluster to use. See Amazon VPC console wizard configurations and Work with VPCs and subnets in the AWS documentation for more information on creating and managing an AWS VPC.

The installation program cannot:

  • Subdivide network ranges for the cluster to use.

  • Set route tables for the subnets.

  • Set VPC options like DHCP.

You must complete these tasks before you install the cluster. See VPC networking components and Route tables for your VPC for more information on configuring networking in an AWS VPC.

Your VPC must meet the following characteristics:

  • The VPC must not use the kubernetes.io/cluster/.*: owned, Name, and openshift.io/cluster tags.

    The installation program modifies your subnets to add the kubernetes.io/cluster/.*: shared tag, so your subnets must have at least one free tag slot available for it. See Tag Restrictions in the AWS documentation to confirm that the installation program can add a tag to each subnet that you specify. You cannot use a Name tag, because it overlaps with the EC2 Name field and the installation fails.

  • If you want to extend your OKD cluster into an AWS Outpost and have an existing Outpost subnet, the existing subnet must use the kubernetes.io/cluster/unmanaged: true tag. If you do not apply this tag, the installation might fail due to the Cloud Controller Manager creating a service load balancer in the Outpost subnet, which is an unsupported configuration.

  • You must enable the enableDnsSupport and enableDnsHostnames attributes in your VPC, so that the cluster can use the Route 53 zones that are attached to the VPC to resolve cluster’s internal DNS records. See DNS Support in Your VPC in the AWS documentation.

    If you prefer to use your own Route 53 hosted private zone, you must associate the existing hosted zone with your VPC prior to installing a cluster. You can define your hosted zone using the platform.aws.hostedZone and platform.aws.hostedZoneRole fields in the install-config.yaml file. You can use a private hosted zone from another account by sharing it with the account where you install the cluster. If you use a private hosted zone from another account, you must use the Passthrough or Manual credentials mode.

If you are working in a disconnected environment, you are unable to reach the public IP addresses for EC2, ELB, and S3 endpoints. Depending on the level to which you want to restrict internet traffic during the installation, the following configuration options are available:

Option 1: Create VPC endpoints

Create a VPC endpoint and attach it to the subnets that the clusters are using. Name the endpoints as follows:

  • ec2.<aws_region>.amazonaws.com

  • elasticloadbalancing.<aws_region>.amazonaws.com

  • s3.<aws_region>.amazonaws.com

With this option, network traffic remains private between your VPC and the required AWS services.

Option 2: Create a proxy without VPC endpoints

As part of the installation process, you can configure an HTTP or HTTPS proxy. With this option, internet traffic goes through the proxy to reach the required AWS services.

Option 3: Create a proxy with VPC endpoints

As part of the installation process, you can configure an HTTP or HTTPS proxy with VPC endpoints. Create a VPC endpoint and attach it to the subnets that the clusters are using. Name the endpoints as follows:

  • ec2.<aws_region>.amazonaws.com

  • elasticloadbalancing.<aws_region>.amazonaws.com

  • s3.<aws_region>.amazonaws.com

When configuring the proxy in the install-config.yaml file, add these endpoints to the noProxy field. With this option, the proxy prevents the cluster from accessing the internet directly. However, network traffic remains private between your VPC and the required AWS services.

Required VPC components

You must provide a suitable VPC and subnets that allow communication to your machines.

Component AWS type Description

VPC

  • AWS::EC2::VPC

  • AWS::EC2::VPCEndpoint

You must provide a public VPC for the cluster to use. The VPC uses an endpoint that references the route tables for each subnet to improve communication with the registry that is hosted in S3.

Public subnets

  • AWS::EC2::Subnet

  • AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation

Your VPC must have public subnets for between 1 and 3 availability zones and associate them with appropriate Ingress rules.

Internet gateway

  • AWS::EC2::InternetGateway

  • AWS::EC2::VPCGatewayAttachment

  • AWS::EC2::RouteTable

  • AWS::EC2::Route

  • AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation

  • AWS::EC2::NatGateway

  • AWS::EC2::EIP

You must have a public internet gateway, with public routes, attached to the VPC. In the provided templates, each public subnet has a NAT gateway with an EIP address. These NAT gateways allow cluster resources, like private subnet instances, to reach the internet and are not required for some restricted network or proxy scenarios.

Network access control

  • AWS::EC2::NetworkAcl

  • AWS::EC2::NetworkAclEntry

You must allow the VPC to access the following ports:

Port

Reason

80

Inbound HTTP traffic

443

Inbound HTTPS traffic

22

Inbound SSH traffic

1024 - 65535

Inbound ephemeral traffic

0 - 65535

Outbound ephemeral traffic

Private subnets

  • AWS::EC2::Subnet

  • AWS::EC2::RouteTable

  • AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation

Your VPC can have private subnets. The provided CloudFormation templates can create private subnets for between 1 and 3 availability zones. If you use private subnets, you must provide appropriate routes and tables for them.

VPC validation

To ensure that the subnets that you provide are suitable, the installation program confirms the following data:

  • All the subnets that you specify exist.

  • You provide private subnets.

  • The subnet CIDRs belong to the machine CIDR that you specified.

  • You provide subnets for each availability zone. Each availability zone contains no more than one public and one private subnet. If you use a private cluster, provide only a private subnet for each availability zone. Otherwise, provide exactly one public and private subnet for each availability zone.

  • You provide a public subnet for each private subnet availability zone. Machines are not provisioned in availability zones that you do not provide private subnets for.

If you destroy a cluster that uses an existing VPC, the VPC is not deleted. When you remove the OKD cluster from a VPC, the kubernetes.io/cluster/.*: shared tag is removed from the subnets that it used.

Division of permissions

Starting with OKD 4.3, you do not need all of the permissions that are required for an installation program-provisioned infrastructure cluster to deploy a cluster. This change mimics the division of permissions that you might have at your company: some individuals can create different resource in your clouds than others. For example, you might be able to create application-specific items, like instances, buckets, and load balancers, but not networking-related components such as VPCs, subnets, or ingress rules.

The AWS credentials that you use when you create your cluster do not need the networking permissions that are required to make VPCs and core networking components within the VPC, such as subnets, routing tables, internet gateways, NAT, and VPN. You still need permission to make the application resources that the machines within the cluster require, such as ELBs, security groups, S3 buckets, and nodes.

Isolation between clusters

If you deploy OKD to an existing network, the isolation of cluster services is reduced in the following ways:

  • You can install multiple OKD clusters in the same VPC.

  • ICMP ingress is allowed from the entire network.

  • TCP 22 ingress (SSH) is allowed to the entire network.

  • Control plane TCP 6443 ingress (Kubernetes API) is allowed to the entire network.

  • Control plane TCP 22623 ingress (MCS) is allowed to the entire network.

Optional: AWS security groups

By default, the installation program creates and attaches security groups to control plane and compute machines. The rules associated with the default security groups cannot be modified.

However, you can apply additional existing AWS security groups, which are associated with your existing VPC, to control plane and compute machines. Applying custom security groups can help you meet the security needs of your organization, in such cases where you need to control the incoming or outgoing traffic of these machines.

As part of the installation process, you apply custom security groups by modifying the install-config.yaml file before deploying the cluster.

For more information, see "Applying existing AWS security groups to the cluster".

Obtaining an AWS Marketplace image

If you are deploying an OKD cluster using an AWS Marketplace image, you must first subscribe through AWS. Subscribing to the offer provides you with the AMI ID that the installation program uses to deploy compute nodes.

Prerequisites
  • You have an AWS account to purchase the offer. This account does not have to be the same account that is used to install the cluster.

Procedure
  1. Complete the OKD subscription from the AWS Marketplace.

  2. Record the AMI ID for your specific AWS Region. As part of the installation process, you must update the install-config.yaml file with this value before deploying the cluster.

    Sample install-config.yaml file with AWS Marketplace compute nodes
    apiVersion: v1
    baseDomain: example.com
    compute:
    - hyperthreading: Enabled
      name: worker
      platform:
        aws:
          amiID: ami-06c4d345f7c207239 (1)
          type: m5.4xlarge
      replicas: 3
    metadata:
      name: test-cluster
    platform:
      aws:
        region: us-east-2 (2)
    sshKey: ssh-ed25519 AAAA...
    pullSecret: '{"auths": ...}'
    1 The AMI ID from your AWS Marketplace subscription.
    2 Your AMI ID is associated with a specific AWS Region. When creating the installation configuration file, ensure that you select the same AWS Region that you specified when configuring your subscription.

Manually creating the installation configuration file

Installing the cluster requires that you manually create the installation configuration file.

Prerequisites
  • You have an SSH public key on your local machine to provide to the installation program. The key will be used for SSH authentication onto your cluster nodes for debugging and disaster recovery.

  • You have obtained the OKD installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure
  1. Create an installation directory to store your required installation assets in:

    $ mkdir <installation_directory>

    You must create a directory. Some installation assets, like bootstrap X.509 certificates have short expiration intervals, so you must not reuse an installation directory. If you want to reuse individual files from another cluster installation, you can copy them into your directory. However, the file names for the installation assets might change between releases. Use caution when copying installation files from an earlier OKD version.

  2. Customize the sample install-config.yaml file template that is provided and save it in the <installation_directory>.

    You must name this configuration file install-config.yaml.

  3. Back up the install-config.yaml file so that you can use it to install multiple clusters.

    The install-config.yaml file is consumed during the next step of the installation process. You must back it up now.

Minimum resource requirements for cluster installation

Each cluster machine must meet the following minimum requirements:

Table 1. Minimum resource requirements
Machine Operating System vCPU [1] Virtual RAM Storage Input/Output Per Second (IOPS)[2]

Bootstrap

FCOS

4

16 GB

100 GB

300

Control plane

FCOS

4

16 GB

100 GB

300

Compute

FCOS

2

8 GB

100 GB

300

  1. One vCPU is equivalent to one physical core when simultaneous multithreading (SMT), or hyperthreading, is not enabled. When enabled, use the following formula to calculate the corresponding ratio: (threads per core × cores) × sockets = vCPUs.

  2. OKD and Kubernetes are sensitive to disk performance, and faster storage is recommended, particularly for etcd on the control plane nodes which require a 10 ms p99 fsync duration. Note that on many cloud platforms, storage size and IOPS scale together, so you might need to over-allocate storage volume to obtain sufficient performance.

  3. As with all user-provisioned installations, if you choose to use Fedora compute machines in your cluster, you take responsibility for all operating system life cycle management and maintenance, including performing system updates, applying patches, and completing all other required tasks. Use of Fedora 7 compute machines is deprecated and has been removed in OKD 4.10 and later.

As of OKD version 4.13, RHCOS is based on RHEL version 9.2, which updates the micro-architecture requirements. The following list contains the minimum instruction set architectures (ISA) that each architecture requires:

  • x86-64 architecture requires x86-64-v2 ISA

  • ARM64 architecture requires ARMv8.0-A ISA

  • IBM Power architecture requires Power 9 ISA

  • s390x architecture requires z14 ISA

For more information, see RHEL Architectures.

If an instance type for your platform meets the minimum requirements for cluster machines, it is supported to use in OKD.

Additional resources

Tested instance types for AWS

The following Amazon Web Services (AWS) instance types have been tested with OKD.

Use the machine types included in the following charts for your AWS instances. If you use an instance type that is not listed in the chart, ensure that the instance size you use matches the minimum resource requirements that are listed in the section named "Minimum resource requirements for cluster installation".

Machine types based on 64-bit x86 architecture
  • c4.*

  • c5.*

  • c5a.*

  • i3.*

  • m4.*

  • m5.*

  • m5a.*

  • m6a.*

  • m6i.*

  • r4.*

  • r5.*

  • r5a.*

  • r6i.*

  • t3.*

  • t3a.*

Tested instance types for AWS on 64-bit ARM infrastructures

The following Amazon Web Services (AWS) 64-bit ARM instance types have been tested with OKD.

Use the machine types included in the following charts for your AWS ARM instances. If you use an instance type that is not listed in the chart, ensure that the instance size you use matches the minimum resource requirements that are listed in "Minimum resource requirements for cluster installation".

Machine types based on 64-bit ARM architecture
  • c6g.*

  • m6g.*

Sample customized install-config.yaml file for AWS

You can customize the installation configuration file (install-config.yaml) to specify more details about your OKD cluster’s platform or modify the values of the required parameters.

This sample YAML file is provided for reference only. Use it as a resource to enter parameter values into the installation configuration file that you created manually.

apiVersion: v1
baseDomain: example.com (1)
credentialsMode: Mint (2)
controlPlane:  (3) (4)
  hyperthreading: Enabled (5)
  name: master
  platform:
    aws:
      zones:
      - us-gov-west-1a
      - us-gov-west-1b
      rootVolume:
        iops: 4000
        size: 500
        type: io1 (6)
      metadataService:
        authentication: Optional (7)
      type: m6i.xlarge
  replicas: 3
compute: (3)
- hyperthreading: Enabled (5)
  name: worker
  platform:
    aws:
      rootVolume:
        iops: 2000
        size: 500
        type: io1 (6)
      metadataService:
        authentication: Optional (7)
      type: c5.4xlarge
      zones:
      - us-gov-west-1c
  replicas: 3
metadata:
  name: test-cluster (1)
networking:
  clusterNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
    hostPrefix: 23
  machineNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.0.0.0/16
  networkType: OVNKubernetes (8)
  serviceNetwork:
  - 172.30.0.0/16
platform:
  aws:
    region: us-gov-west-1 (1)
    propagateUserTags: true (3)
    userTags:
      adminContact: jdoe
      costCenter: 7536
    subnets: (9)
    - subnet-1
    - subnet-2
    - subnet-3
    amiID: ami-0c5d3e03c0ab9b19a (10)
    serviceEndpoints: (11)
      - name: ec2
        url: https://vpce-id.ec2.us-west-2.vpce.amazonaws.com
    hostedZone: Z3URY6TWQ91KVV (12)
sshKey: ssh-ed25519 AAAA... (13)
pullSecret: '{"auths": ...}' (1)
publish: Internal (14)
1 Required.
2 Optional: Add this parameter to force the Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) to use the specified mode. By default, the CCO uses the root credentials in the kube-system namespace to dynamically try to determine the capabilities of the credentials. For details about CCO modes, see the "About the Cloud Credential Operator" section in the Authentication and authorization guide.
3 If you do not provide these parameters and values, the installation program provides the default value.
4 The controlPlane section is a single mapping, but the compute section is a sequence of mappings. To meet the requirements of the different data structures, the first line of the compute section must begin with a hyphen, -, and the first line of the controlPlane section must not. Only one control plane pool is used.
5 Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores. You can disable it by setting the parameter value to Disabled. If you disable simultaneous multithreading in some cluster machines, you must disable it in all cluster machines.

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance. Use larger instance types, such as m4.2xlarge or m5.2xlarge, for your machines if you disable simultaneous multithreading.

6 To configure faster storage for etcd, especially for larger clusters, set the storage type as io1 and set iops to 2000.
7 Whether to require the Amazon EC2 Instance Metadata Service v2 (IMDSv2). To require IMDSv2, set the parameter value to Required. To allow the use of both IMDSv1 and IMDSv2, set the parameter value to Optional. If no value is specified, both IMDSv1 and IMDSv2 are allowed.

The IMDS configuration for control plane machines that is set during cluster installation can only be changed by using the AWS CLI. The IMDS configuration for compute machines can be changed by using compute machine sets.

8 The cluster network plugin to install. The default value OVNKubernetes is the only supported value.
9 If you provide your own VPC, specify subnets for each availability zone that your cluster uses.
10 The ID of the AMI used to boot machines for the cluster. If set, the AMI must belong to the same region as the cluster.
11 The AWS service endpoints. Custom endpoints are required when installing to an unknown AWS region. The endpoint URL must use the https protocol and the host must trust the certificate.
12 The ID of your existing Route 53 private hosted zone. Providing an existing hosted zone requires that you supply your own VPC and the hosted zone is already associated with the VPC prior to installing your cluster. If undefined, the installation program creates a new hosted zone.
13 You can optionally provide the sshKey value that you use to access the machines in your cluster.

For production OKD clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

14 How to publish the user-facing endpoints of your cluster. Set publish to Internal to deploy a private cluster, which cannot be accessed from the internet. The default value is External.

Configuring the cluster-wide proxy during installation

Production environments can deny direct access to the internet and instead have an HTTP or HTTPS proxy available. You can configure a new OKD cluster to use a proxy by configuring the proxy settings in the install-config.yaml file.

Prerequisites
  • You have an existing install-config.yaml file.

  • You reviewed the sites that your cluster requires access to and determined whether any of them need to bypass the proxy. By default, all cluster egress traffic is proxied, including calls to hosting cloud provider APIs. You added sites to the Proxy object’s spec.noProxy field to bypass the proxy if necessary.

    The Proxy object status.noProxy field is populated with the values of the networking.machineNetwork[].cidr, networking.clusterNetwork[].cidr, and networking.serviceNetwork[] fields from your installation configuration.

    For installations on Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure, and OpenStack, the Proxy object status.noProxy field is also populated with the instance metadata endpoint (169.254.169.254).

Procedure
  1. Edit your install-config.yaml file and add the proxy settings. For example:

    apiVersion: v1
    baseDomain: my.domain.com
    proxy:
      httpProxy: http://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> (1)
      httpsProxy: https://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> (2)
      noProxy: ec2.<aws_region>.amazonaws.com,elasticloadbalancing.<aws_region>.amazonaws.com,s3.<aws_region>.amazonaws.com (3)
    additionalTrustBundle: | (4)
        -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
        <MY_TRUSTED_CA_CERT>
        -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    additionalTrustBundlePolicy: <policy_to_add_additionalTrustBundle> (5)
    1 A proxy URL to use for creating HTTP connections outside the cluster. The URL scheme must be http.
    2 A proxy URL to use for creating HTTPS connections outside the cluster.
    3 A comma-separated list of destination domain names, IP addresses, or other network CIDRs to exclude from proxying. Preface a domain with . to match subdomains only. For example, .y.com matches x.y.com, but not y.com. Use * to bypass the proxy for all destinations. If you have added the Amazon EC2,Elastic Load Balancing, and S3 VPC endpoints to your VPC, you must add these endpoints to the noProxy field.
    4 If provided, the installation program generates a config map that is named user-ca-bundle in the openshift-config namespace to hold the additional CA certificates. If you provide additionalTrustBundle and at least one proxy setting, the Proxy object is configured to reference the user-ca-bundle config map in the trustedCA field. The Cluster Network Operator then creates a trusted-ca-bundle config map that merges the contents specified for the trustedCA parameter with the FCOS trust bundle. The additionalTrustBundle field is required unless the proxy’s identity certificate is signed by an authority from the FCOS trust bundle.
    5 Optional: The policy to determine the configuration of the Proxy object to reference the user-ca-bundle config map in the trustedCA field. The allowed values are Proxyonly and Always. Use Proxyonly to reference the user-ca-bundle config map only when http/https proxy is configured. Use Always to always reference the user-ca-bundle config map. The default value is Proxyonly.

    The installation program does not support the proxy readinessEndpoints field.

    If the installer times out, restart and then complete the deployment by using the wait-for command of the installer. For example:

    $ ./openshift-install wait-for install-complete --log-level debug
  2. Save the file and reference it when installing OKD.

The installation program creates a cluster-wide proxy that is named cluster that uses the proxy settings in the provided install-config.yaml file. If no proxy settings are provided, a cluster Proxy object is still created, but it will have a nil spec.

Only the Proxy object named cluster is supported, and no additional proxies can be created.

Applying existing AWS security groups to the cluster

Applying existing AWS security groups to your control plane and compute machines can help you meet the security needs of your organization, in such cases where you need to control the incoming or outgoing traffic of these machines.

Prerequisites
  • You have created the security groups in AWS. For more information, see the AWS documentation about working with security groups.

  • The security groups must be associated with the existing VPC that you are deploying the cluster to. The security groups cannot be associated with another VPC.

  • You have an existing install-config.yaml file.

Procedure
  1. In the install-config.yaml file, edit the compute.platform.aws.additionalSecurityGroupIDs parameter to specify one or more custom security groups for your compute machines.

  2. Edit the controlPlane.platform.aws.additionalSecurityGroupIDs parameter to specify one or more custom security groups for your control plane machines.

  3. Save the file and reference it when deploying the cluster.

Sample install-config.yaml file that specifies custom security groups
# ...
compute:
- hyperthreading: Enabled
  name: worker
  platform:
    aws:
      additionalSecurityGroupIDs:
        - sg-1 (1)
        - sg-2
  replicas: 3
controlPlane:
  hyperthreading: Enabled
  name: master
  platform:
    aws:
      additionalSecurityGroupIDs:
        - sg-3
        - sg-4
  replicas: 3
platform:
  aws:
    region: us-east-1
    subnets: (2)
      - subnet-1
      - subnet-2
      - subnet-3
1 Specify the name of the security group as it appears in the Amazon EC2 console, including the sg prefix.
2 Specify subnets for each availability zone that your cluster uses.

Alternatives to storing administrator-level secrets in the kube-system project

By default, administrator secrets are stored in the kube-system project. If you configured the credentialsMode parameter in the install-config.yaml file to Manual, you must use one of the following alternatives:

Manually creating long-term credentials

The Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) can be put into manual mode prior to installation in environments where the cloud identity and access management (IAM) APIs are not reachable, or the administrator prefers not to store an administrator-level credential secret in the cluster kube-system namespace.

Procedure
  1. If you did not set the credentialsMode parameter in the install-config.yaml configuration file to Manual, modify the value as shown:

    Sample configuration file snippet
    apiVersion: v1
    baseDomain: example.com
    credentialsMode: Manual
    # ...
  2. If you have not previously created installation manifest files, do so by running the following command:

    $ openshift-install create manifests --dir <installation_directory>

    where <installation_directory> is the directory in which the installation program creates files.

  3. Set a $RELEASE_IMAGE variable with the release image from your installation file by running the following command:

    $ RELEASE_IMAGE=$(./openshift-install version | awk '/release image/ {print $3}')
  4. Extract the list of CredentialsRequest custom resources (CRs) from the OKD release image by running the following command:

    $ oc adm release extract \
      --from=$RELEASE_IMAGE \
      --credentials-requests \
      --included \(1)
      --install-config=<path_to_directory_with_installation_configuration>/install-config.yaml \(2)
      --to=<path_to_directory_for_credentials_requests> (3)
    1 The --included parameter includes only the manifests that your specific cluster configuration requires.
    2 Specify the location of the install-config.yaml file.
    3 Specify the path to the directory where you want to store the CredentialsRequest objects. If the specified directory does not exist, this command creates it.

    This command creates a YAML file for each CredentialsRequest object.

    Sample CredentialsRequest object
    apiVersion: cloudcredential.openshift.io/v1
    kind: CredentialsRequest
    metadata:
      name: <component_credentials_request>
      namespace: openshift-cloud-credential-operator
      ...
    spec:
      providerSpec:
        apiVersion: cloudcredential.openshift.io/v1
        kind: AWSProviderSpec
        statementEntries:
        - effect: Allow
          action:
          - iam:GetUser
          - iam:GetUserPolicy
          - iam:ListAccessKeys
          resource: "*"
      ...
  5. Create YAML files for secrets in the openshift-install manifests directory that you generated previously. The secrets must be stored using the namespace and secret name defined in the spec.secretRef for each CredentialsRequest object.

    Sample CredentialsRequest object with secrets
    apiVersion: cloudcredential.openshift.io/v1
    kind: CredentialsRequest
    metadata:
      name: <component_credentials_request>
      namespace: openshift-cloud-credential-operator
      ...
    spec:
      providerSpec:
        apiVersion: cloudcredential.openshift.io/v1
        kind: AWSProviderSpec
        statementEntries:
        - effect: Allow
          action:
          - s3:CreateBucket
          - s3:DeleteBucket
          resource: "*"
          ...
      secretRef:
        name: <component_secret>
        namespace: <component_namespace>
      ...
    Sample Secret object
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Secret
    metadata:
      name: <component_secret>
      namespace: <component_namespace>
    data:
      aws_access_key_id: <base64_encoded_aws_access_key_id>
      aws_secret_access_key: <base64_encoded_aws_secret_access_key>

Before upgrading a cluster that uses manually maintained credentials, you must ensure that the CCO is in an upgradeable state.

Configuring an AWS cluster to use short-term credentials

To install a cluster that is configured to use the AWS Security Token Service (STS), you must configure the CCO utility and create the required AWS resources for your cluster.

Configuring the Cloud Credential Operator utility

To create and manage cloud credentials from outside of the cluster when the Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) is operating in manual mode, extract and prepare the CCO utility (ccoctl) binary.

The ccoctl utility is a Linux binary that must run in a Linux environment.

Prerequisites
  • You have access to an OKD account with cluster administrator access.

  • You have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

  • You have created an AWS account for the ccoctl utility to use with the following permissions:

    Required AWS permissions

    Required iam permissions

    • iam:CreateOpenIDConnectProvider

    • iam:CreateRole

    • iam:DeleteOpenIDConnectProvider

    • iam:DeleteRole

    • iam:DeleteRolePolicy

    • iam:GetOpenIDConnectProvider

    • iam:GetRole

    • iam:GetUser

    • iam:ListOpenIDConnectProviders

    • iam:ListRolePolicies

    • iam:ListRoles

    • iam:PutRolePolicy

    • iam:TagOpenIDConnectProvider

    • iam:TagRole

    Required s3 permissions

    • s3:CreateBucket

    • s3:DeleteBucket

    • s3:DeleteObject

    • s3:GetBucketAcl

    • s3:GetBucketTagging

    • s3:GetObject

    • s3:GetObjectAcl

    • s3:GetObjectTagging

    • s3:ListBucket

    • s3:PutBucketAcl

    • s3:PutBucketPolicy

    • s3:PutBucketPublicAccessBlock

    • s3:PutBucketTagging

    • s3:PutObject

    • s3:PutObjectAcl

    • s3:PutObjectTagging

    Required cloudfront permissions

    • cloudfront:ListCloudFrontOriginAccessIdentities

    • cloudfront:ListDistributions

    • cloudfront:ListTagsForResource

    If you plan to store the OIDC configuration in a private S3 bucket that is accessed by the IAM identity provider through a public CloudFront distribution URL, the AWS account that runs the ccoctl utility requires the following additional permissions:

    Additional permissions for a private S3 bucket with CloudFront
    • cloudfront:CreateCloudFrontOriginAccessIdentity

    • cloudfront:CreateDistribution

    • cloudfront:DeleteCloudFrontOriginAccessIdentity

    • cloudfront:DeleteDistribution

    • cloudfront:GetCloudFrontOriginAccessIdentity

    • cloudfront:GetCloudFrontOriginAccessIdentityConfig

    • cloudfront:GetDistribution

    • cloudfront:TagResource

    • cloudfront:UpdateDistribution

    These additional permissions support the use of the --create-private-s3-bucket option when processing credentials requests with the ccoctl aws create-all command.

Procedure
  1. Obtain the OKD release image by running the following command:

    $ RELEASE_IMAGE=$(./openshift-install version | awk '/release image/ {print $3}')
  2. Obtain the CCO container image from the OKD release image by running the following command:

    $ CCO_IMAGE=$(oc adm release info --image-for='cloud-credential-operator' $RELEASE_IMAGE -a ~/.pull-secret)

    Ensure that the architecture of the $RELEASE_IMAGE matches the architecture of the environment in which you will use the ccoctl tool.

  3. Extract the ccoctl binary from the CCO container image within the OKD release image by running the following command:

    $ oc image extract $CCO_IMAGE --file="/usr/bin/ccoctl" -a ~/.pull-secret
  4. Change the permissions to make ccoctl executable by running the following command:

    $ chmod 775 ccoctl
Verification
  • To verify that ccoctl is ready to use, display the help file by running the following command:

    $ ccoctl --help
    Output of ccoctl --help
    OpenShift credentials provisioning tool
    
    Usage:
      ccoctl [command]
    
    Available Commands:
      alibabacloud Manage credentials objects for alibaba cloud
      aws          Manage credentials objects for AWS cloud
      azure        Manage credentials objects for Azure
      gcp          Manage credentials objects for Google cloud
      help         Help about any command
      ibmcloud     Manage credentials objects for IBM Cloud
      nutanix      Manage credentials objects for Nutanix
    
    Flags:
      -h, --help   help for ccoctl
    
    Use "ccoctl [command] --help" for more information about a command.

Creating AWS resources with the Cloud Credential Operator utility

You have the following options when creating AWS resources:

  • You can use the ccoctl aws create-all command to create the AWS resources automatically. This is the quickest way to create the resources. See Creating AWS resources with a single command.

  • If you need to review the JSON files that the ccoctl tool creates before modifying AWS resources, or if the process the ccoctl tool uses to create AWS resources automatically does not meet the requirements of your organization, you can create the AWS resources individually. See Creating AWS resources individually.

Creating AWS resources with a single command

If the process the ccoctl tool uses to create AWS resources automatically meets the requirements of your organization, you can use the ccoctl aws create-all command to automate the creation of AWS resources.

Otherwise, you can create the AWS resources individually. For more information, see "Creating AWS resources individually".

By default, ccoctl creates objects in the directory in which the commands are run. To create the objects in a different directory, use the --output-dir flag. This procedure uses <path_to_ccoctl_output_dir> to refer to this directory.

Prerequisites

You must have:

  • Extracted and prepared the ccoctl binary.

Procedure
  1. Set a $RELEASE_IMAGE variable with the release image from your installation file by running the following command:

    $ RELEASE_IMAGE=$(./openshift-install version | awk '/release image/ {print $3}')
  2. Extract the list of CredentialsRequest objects from the OKD release image by running the following command:

    $ oc adm release extract \
      --from=$RELEASE_IMAGE \
      --credentials-requests \
      --included \(1)
      --install-config=<path_to_directory_with_installation_configuration>/install-config.yaml \(2)
      --to=<path_to_directory_for_credentials_requests> (3)
    1 The --included parameter includes only the manifests that your specific cluster configuration requires.
    2 Specify the location of the install-config.yaml file.
    3 Specify the path to the directory where you want to store the CredentialsRequest objects. If the specified directory does not exist, this command creates it.

    This command might take a few moments to run.

  3. Use the ccoctl tool to process all CredentialsRequest objects by running the following command:

    $ ccoctl aws create-all \
      --name=<name> \(1)
      --region=<aws_region> \(2)
      --credentials-requests-dir=<path_to_credentials_requests_directory> \(3)
      --output-dir=<path_to_ccoctl_output_dir> \(4)
      --create-private-s3-bucket (5)
    1 Specify the name used to tag any cloud resources that are created for tracking.
    2 Specify the AWS region in which cloud resources will be created.
    3 Specify the directory containing the files for the component CredentialsRequest objects.
    4 Optional: Specify the directory in which you want the ccoctl utility to create objects. By default, the utility creates objects in the directory in which the commands are run.
    5 Optional: By default, the ccoctl utility stores the OpenID Connect (OIDC) configuration files in a public S3 bucket and uses the S3 URL as the public OIDC endpoint. To store the OIDC configuration in a private S3 bucket that is accessed by the IAM identity provider through a public CloudFront distribution URL instead, use the --create-private-s3-bucket parameter.

    If your cluster uses Technology Preview features that are enabled by the TechPreviewNoUpgrade feature set, you must include the --enable-tech-preview parameter.

Verification
  • To verify that the OKD secrets are created, list the files in the <path_to_ccoctl_output_dir>/manifests directory:

    $ ls <path_to_ccoctl_output_dir>/manifests
    Example output
    cluster-authentication-02-config.yaml
    openshift-cloud-credential-operator-cloud-credential-operator-iam-ro-creds-credentials.yaml
    openshift-cloud-network-config-controller-cloud-credentials-credentials.yaml
    openshift-cluster-api-capa-manager-bootstrap-credentials-credentials.yaml
    openshift-cluster-csi-drivers-ebs-cloud-credentials-credentials.yaml
    openshift-image-registry-installer-cloud-credentials-credentials.yaml
    openshift-ingress-operator-cloud-credentials-credentials.yaml
    openshift-machine-api-aws-cloud-credentials-credentials.yaml

    You can verify that the IAM roles are created by querying AWS. For more information, refer to AWS documentation on listing IAM roles.

Creating AWS resources individually

You can use the ccoctl tool to create AWS resources individually. This option might be useful for an organization that shares the responsibility for creating these resources among different users or departments.

Otherwise, you can use the ccoctl aws create-all command to create the AWS resources automatically. For more information, see "Creating AWS resources with a single command".

By default, ccoctl creates objects in the directory in which the commands are run. To create the objects in a different directory, use the --output-dir flag. This procedure uses <path_to_ccoctl_output_dir> to refer to this directory.

Some ccoctl commands make AWS API calls to create or modify AWS resources. You can use the --dry-run flag to avoid making API calls. Using this flag creates JSON files on the local file system instead. You can review and modify the JSON files and then apply them with the AWS CLI tool using the --cli-input-json parameters.

Prerequisites
  • Extract and prepare the ccoctl binary.

Procedure
  1. Generate the public and private RSA key files that are used to set up the OpenID Connect provider for the cluster by running the following command:

    $ ccoctl aws create-key-pair
    Example output
    2021/04/13 11:01:02 Generating RSA keypair
    2021/04/13 11:01:03 Writing private key to /<path_to_ccoctl_output_dir>/serviceaccount-signer.private
    2021/04/13 11:01:03 Writing public key to /<path_to_ccoctl_output_dir>/serviceaccount-signer.public
    2021/04/13 11:01:03 Copying signing key for use by installer

    where serviceaccount-signer.private and serviceaccount-signer.public are the generated key files.

    This command also creates a private key that the cluster requires during installation in /<path_to_ccoctl_output_dir>/tls/bound-service-account-signing-key.key.

  2. Create an OpenID Connect identity provider and S3 bucket on AWS by running the following command:

    $ ccoctl aws create-identity-provider \
      --name=<name> \(1)
      --region=<aws_region> \(2)
      --public-key-file=<path_to_ccoctl_output_dir>/serviceaccount-signer.public (3)
    1 <name> is the name used to tag any cloud resources that are created for tracking.
    2 <aws-region> is the AWS region in which cloud resources will be created.
    3 <path_to_ccoctl_output_dir> is the path to the public key file that the ccoctl aws create-key-pair command generated.
    Example output
    2021/04/13 11:16:09 Bucket <name>-oidc created
    2021/04/13 11:16:10 OpenID Connect discovery document in the S3 bucket <name>-oidc at .well-known/openid-configuration updated
    2021/04/13 11:16:10 Reading public key
    2021/04/13 11:16:10 JSON web key set (JWKS) in the S3 bucket <name>-oidc at keys.json updated
    2021/04/13 11:16:18 Identity Provider created with ARN: arn:aws:iam::<aws_account_id>:oidc-provider/<name>-oidc.s3.<aws_region>.amazonaws.com

    where openid-configuration is a discovery document and keys.json is a JSON web key set file.

    This command also creates a YAML configuration file in /<path_to_ccoctl_output_dir>/manifests/cluster-authentication-02-config.yaml. This file sets the issuer URL field for the service account tokens that the cluster generates, so that the AWS IAM identity provider trusts the tokens.

  3. Create IAM roles for each component in the cluster:

    1. Set a $RELEASE_IMAGE variable with the release image from your installation file by running the following command:

      $ RELEASE_IMAGE=$(./openshift-install version | awk '/release image/ {print $3}')
    2. Extract the list of CredentialsRequest objects from the OKD release image:

      $ oc adm release extract \
        --from=$RELEASE_IMAGE \
        --credentials-requests \
        --included \(1)
        --install-config=<path_to_directory_with_installation_configuration>/install-config.yaml \(2)
        --to=<path_to_directory_for_credentials_requests> (3)
      1 The --included parameter includes only the manifests that your specific cluster configuration requires.
      2 Specify the location of the install-config.yaml file.
      3 Specify the path to the directory where you want to store the CredentialsRequest objects. If the specified directory does not exist, this command creates it.
    3. Use the ccoctl tool to process all CredentialsRequest objects by running the following command:

      $ ccoctl aws create-iam-roles \
        --name=<name> \
        --region=<aws_region> \
        --credentials-requests-dir=<path_to_credentials_requests_directory> \
        --identity-provider-arn=arn:aws:iam::<aws_account_id>:oidc-provider/<name>-oidc.s3.<aws_region>.amazonaws.com

      For AWS environments that use alternative IAM API endpoints, such as GovCloud, you must also specify your region with the --region parameter.

      If your cluster uses Technology Preview features that are enabled by the TechPreviewNoUpgrade feature set, you must include the --enable-tech-preview parameter.

      For each CredentialsRequest object, ccoctl creates an IAM role with a trust policy that is tied to the specified OIDC identity provider, and a permissions policy as defined in each CredentialsRequest object from the OKD release image.

Verification
  • To verify that the OKD secrets are created, list the files in the <path_to_ccoctl_output_dir>/manifests directory:

    $ ls <path_to_ccoctl_output_dir>/manifests
    Example output
    cluster-authentication-02-config.yaml
    openshift-cloud-credential-operator-cloud-credential-operator-iam-ro-creds-credentials.yaml
    openshift-cloud-network-config-controller-cloud-credentials-credentials.yaml
    openshift-cluster-api-capa-manager-bootstrap-credentials-credentials.yaml
    openshift-cluster-csi-drivers-ebs-cloud-credentials-credentials.yaml
    openshift-image-registry-installer-cloud-credentials-credentials.yaml
    openshift-ingress-operator-cloud-credentials-credentials.yaml
    openshift-machine-api-aws-cloud-credentials-credentials.yaml

    You can verify that the IAM roles are created by querying AWS. For more information, refer to AWS documentation on listing IAM roles.

Incorporating the Cloud Credential Operator utility manifests

To implement short-term security credentials managed outside the cluster for individual components, you must move the manifest files that the Cloud Credential Operator utility (ccoctl) created to the correct directories for the installation program.

Prerequisites
  • You have configured an account with the cloud platform that hosts your cluster.

  • You have configured the Cloud Credential Operator utility (ccoctl).

  • You have created the cloud provider resources that are required for your cluster with the ccoctl utility.

Procedure
  1. If you did not set the credentialsMode parameter in the install-config.yaml configuration file to Manual, modify the value as shown:

    Sample configuration file snippet
    apiVersion: v1
    baseDomain: example.com
    credentialsMode: Manual
    # ...
  2. If you have not previously created installation manifest files, do so by running the following command:

    $ openshift-install create manifests --dir <installation_directory>

    where <installation_directory> is the directory in which the installation program creates files.

  3. Copy the manifests that the ccoctl utility generated to the manifests directory that the installation program created by running the following command:

    $ cp /<path_to_ccoctl_output_dir>/manifests/* ./manifests/
  4. Copy the private key that the ccoctl utility generated in the tls directory to the installation directory by running the following command:

    $ cp -a /<path_to_ccoctl_output_dir>/tls .

Deploying the cluster

You can install OKD on a compatible cloud platform.

You can run the create cluster command of the installation program only once, during initial installation.

Prerequisites
  • You have configured an account with the cloud platform that hosts your cluster.

  • You have the OKD installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

  • You have verified that the cloud provider account on your host has the correct permissions to deploy the cluster. An account with incorrect permissions causes the installation process to fail with an error message that displays the missing permissions.

Procedure
  1. Change to the directory that contains the installation program and initialize the cluster deployment:

    $ ./openshift-install create cluster --dir <installation_directory> \ (1)
        --log-level=info (2)
    
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the location of your customized ./install-config.yaml file.
    2 To view different installation details, specify warn, debug, or error instead of info.
  2. Optional: Remove or disable the AdministratorAccess policy from the IAM account that you used to install the cluster.

    The elevated permissions provided by the AdministratorAccess policy are required only during installation.

Verification

When the cluster deployment completes successfully:

  • The terminal displays directions for accessing your cluster, including a link to the web console and credentials for the kubeadmin user.

  • Credential information also outputs to <installation_directory>/.openshift_install.log.

Do not delete the installation program or the files that the installation program creates. Both are required to delete the cluster.

Example output
...
INFO Install complete!
INFO To access the cluster as the system:admin user when using 'oc', run 'export KUBECONFIG=/home/myuser/install_dir/auth/kubeconfig'
INFO Access the OpenShift web-console here: https://console-openshift-console.apps.mycluster.example.com
INFO Login to the console with user: "kubeadmin", and password: "password"
INFO Time elapsed: 36m22s
  • The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours, which are then renewed at that time. If the cluster is shut down before renewing the certificates and the cluster is later restarted after the 24 hours have elapsed, the cluster automatically recovers the expired certificates. The exception is that you must manually approve the pending node-bootstrapper certificate signing requests (CSRs) to recover kubelet certificates. See the documentation for Recovering from expired control plane certificates for more information.

  • It is recommended that you use Ignition config files within 12 hours after they are generated because the 24-hour certificate rotates from 16 to 22 hours after the cluster is installed. By using the Ignition config files within 12 hours, you can avoid installation failure if the certificate update runs during installation.

Logging in to the cluster by using the CLI

You can log in to your cluster as a default system user by exporting the cluster kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server. The file is specific to a cluster and is created during OKD installation.

Prerequisites
  • You deployed an OKD cluster.

  • You installed the oc CLI.

Procedure
  1. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig (1)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
  2. Verify you can run oc commands successfully using the exported configuration:

    $ oc whoami
    Example output
    system:admin

Logging in to the cluster by using the web console

The kubeadmin user exists by default after an OKD installation. You can log in to your cluster as the kubeadmin user by using the OKD web console.

Prerequisites
  • You have access to the installation host.

  • You completed a cluster installation and all cluster Operators are available.

Procedure
  1. Obtain the password for the kubeadmin user from the kubeadmin-password file on the installation host:

    $ cat <installation_directory>/auth/kubeadmin-password

    Alternatively, you can obtain the kubeadmin password from the <installation_directory>/.openshift_install.log log file on the installation host.

  2. List the OKD web console route:

    $ oc get routes -n openshift-console | grep 'console-openshift'

    Alternatively, you can obtain the OKD route from the <installation_directory>/.openshift_install.log log file on the installation host.

    Example output
    console     console-openshift-console.apps.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>            console     https   reencrypt/Redirect   None
  3. Navigate to the route detailed in the output of the preceding command in a web browser and log in as the kubeadmin user.

Additional resources