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You can use the Lifecycle Agent to do a manual image-based upgrade of a single-node OpenShift cluster.

When you deploy the Lifecycle Agent on a cluster, an ImageBasedUpgrade CR is automatically created. You update this CR to specify the image repository of the seed image and to move through the different stages.

Moving to the Prep stage of the image-based upgrade with Lifecycle Agent

When you deploy the Lifecycle Agent on a cluster, an ImageBasedUpgrade custom resource (CR) is automatically created.

After you created all the resources that you need during the upgrade, you can move on to the Prep stage. For more information, see the "Creating ConfigMap objects for the image-based upgrade with Lifecycle Agent" section.

Prerequisites
  • You have created resources to back up and restore your clusters.

Procedure
  1. Check that you have patched your ImageBasedUpgrade CR:

    apiVersion: lca.openshift.io/v1
    kind: ImageBasedUpgrade
    metadata:
      name: upgrade
    spec:
      stage: Idle
      seedImageRef:
        version: 4.15.2 (1)
        image: <seed_container_image> (2)
        pullSecretRef: <seed_pull_secret> (3)
      autoRollbackOnFailure: {}
    #    initMonitorTimeoutSeconds: 1800 (4)
      extraManifests: (5)
      - name: example-extra-manifests-cm
        namespace: openshift-lifecycle-agent
      - name: example-catalogsources-cm
        namespace: openshift-lifecycle-agent
      oadpContent: (6)
      - name: oadp-cm-example
        namespace: openshift-adp
    1 Specify the target platform version. The value must match the version of the seed image.
    2 Specify the repository where the target cluster can pull the seed image from.
    3 Specify the reference to a secret with credentials to pull container images if the images are in a private registry.
    4 (Optional) Specify the time frame in seconds to roll back if the upgrade does not complete within that time frame after the first reboot. If not defined or set to 0, the default value of 1800 seconds (30 minutes) is used.
    5 (Optional) Specify the list of ConfigMap resources that contain your custom catalog sources to retain after the upgrade and your extra manifests to apply to the target cluster that are not part of the seed image.
    6 Add the oadpContent section with the OADP ConfigMap information.
  2. To start the Prep stage, change the value of the stage field to Prep in the ImageBasedUpgrade CR by running the following command:

    $ oc patch imagebasedupgrades.lca.openshift.io upgrade -p='{"spec": {"stage": "Prep"}}' --type=merge -n openshift-lifecycle-agent

    If you provide ConfigMap objects for OADP resources and extra manifests, Lifecycle Agent validates the specified ConfigMap objects during the Prep stage. You might encounter the following issues:

    • Validation warnings or errors if the Lifecycle Agent detects any issues with the extraManifests parameters.

    • Validation errors if the Lifecycle Agent detects any issues with the oadpContent parameters.

    Validation warnings do not block the Upgrade stage but you must decide if it is safe to proceed with the upgrade. These warnings, for example missing CRDs, namespaces, or dry run failures, update the status.conditions for the Prep stage and annotation fields in the ImageBasedUpgrade CR with details about the warning.

    Example validation warning
    [...]
    metadata:
    annotations:
      extra-manifest.lca.openshift.io/validation-warning: '...'
    [...]

    However, validation errors, such as adding MachineConfig or Operator manifests to extra manifests, cause the Prep stage to fail and block the Upgrade stage.

    When the validations pass, the cluster creates a new ostree stateroot, which involves pulling and unpacking the seed image, and running host-level commands. Finally, all the required images are precached on the target cluster.

Verification
  • Check the status of the ImageBasedUpgrade CR by running the following command:

    $ oc get ibu -o yaml
    Example output
      conditions:
      - lastTransitionTime: "2024-01-01T09:00:00Z"
        message: In progress
        observedGeneration: 13
        reason: InProgress
        status: "False"
        type: Idle
      - lastTransitionTime: "2024-01-01T09:00:00Z"
        message: Prep completed
        observedGeneration: 13
        reason: Completed
        status: "False"
        type: PrepInProgress
      - lastTransitionTime: "2024-01-01T09:00:00Z"
        message: Prep stage completed successfully
        observedGeneration: 13
        reason: Completed
        status: "True"
        type: PrepCompleted
      observedGeneration: 13
      validNextStages:
      - Idle
      - Upgrade

Moving to the Upgrade stage of the image-based upgrade with Lifecycle Agent

After you generate the seed image and complete the Prep stage, you can upgrade the target cluster. During the upgrade process, the OADP Operator creates a backup of the artifacts specified in the OADP custom resources (CRs), then the Lifecycle Agent upgrades the cluster.

If the upgrade fails or stops, an automatic rollback is initiated. If you have an issue after the upgrade, you can initiate a manual rollback. For more information about manual rollback, see "Moving to the Rollback stage of the image-based upgrade with Lifecycle Agent".

Prerequisites
  • Complete the Prep stage.

Procedure
  1. To move to the Upgrade stage, change the value of the stage field to Upgrade in the ImageBasedUpgrade CR by running the following command:

    $ oc patch imagebasedupgrades.lca.openshift.io upgrade -p='{"spec": {"stage": "Upgrade"}}' --type=merge
  2. Check the status of the ImageBasedUpgrade CR by running the following command:

    $ oc get ibu -o yaml
    Example output
    status:
      conditions:
      - lastTransitionTime: "2024-01-01T09:00:00Z"
        message: In progress
        observedGeneration: 5
        reason: InProgress
        status: "False"
        type: Idle
      - lastTransitionTime: "2024-01-01T09:00:00Z"
        message: Prep completed
        observedGeneration: 5
        reason: Completed
        status: "False"
        type: PrepInProgress
      - lastTransitionTime: "2024-01-01T09:00:00Z"
        message: Prep completed successfully
        observedGeneration: 5
        reason: Completed
        status: "True"
        type: PrepCompleted
      - lastTransitionTime: "2024-01-01T09:00:00Z"
        message: |-
          Waiting for system to stabilize: one or more health checks failed
            - one or more ClusterOperators not yet ready: authentication
            - one or more MachineConfigPools not yet ready: master
            - one or more ClusterServiceVersions not yet ready: sriov-fec.v2.8.0
        observedGeneration: 1
        reason: InProgress
        status: "True"
        type: UpgradeInProgress
      observedGeneration: 1
      rollbackAvailabilityExpiration: "2024-05-19T14:01:52Z"
      validNextStages:
      - Rollback

    The OADP Operator creates a backup of the data specified in the OADP Backup and Restore CRs and the target cluster reboots.

  3. Monitor the status of the CR by running the following command:

    $ oc get ibu -o yaml
  4. If you are satisfied with the upgrade, finalize the changes by patching the value of the stage field to Idle in the ImageBasedUpgrade CR by running the following command:

    $ oc patch imagebasedupgrades.lca.openshift.io upgrade -p='{"spec": {"stage": "Idle"}}' --type=merge

    You cannot roll back the changes once you move to the Idle stage after an upgrade.

    The Lifecycle Agent deletes all resources created during the upgrade process.

Verification
  1. Check the status of the ImageBasedUpgrade CR by running the following command:

    $ oc get ibu -o yaml
    Example output
    status:
      conditions:
      - lastTransitionTime: "2024-01-01T09:00:00Z"
        message: In progress
        observedGeneration: 5
        reason: InProgress
        status: "False"
        type: Idle
      - lastTransitionTime: "2024-01-01T09:00:00Z"
        message: Prep completed
        observedGeneration: 5
        reason: Completed
        status: "False"
        type: PrepInProgress
      - lastTransitionTime: "2024-01-01T09:00:00Z"
        message: Prep completed successfully
        observedGeneration: 5
        reason: Completed
        status: "True"
        type: PrepCompleted
      - lastTransitionTime: "2024-01-01T09:00:00Z"
        message: Upgrade completed
        observedGeneration: 1
        reason: Completed
        status: "False"
        type: UpgradeInProgress
      - lastTransitionTime: "2024-01-01T09:00:00Z"
        message: Upgrade completed
        observedGeneration: 1
        reason: Completed
        status: "True"
        type: UpgradeCompleted
      observedGeneration: 1
      rollbackAvailabilityExpiration: "2024-01-01T09:00:00Z"
      validNextStages:
      - Idle
      - Rollback
  2. Check the status of the cluster restoration by running the following command:

    $ oc get restores -n openshift-adp -o custom-columns=NAME:.metadata.name,Status:.status.phase,Reason:.status.failureReason
    Example output
    NAME             Status      Reason
    acm-klusterlet   Completed   <none> (1)
    apache-app       Completed   <none>
    localvolume      Completed   <none>
    1 The acm-klusterlet is specific to RHACM environments only.

Moving to the Rollback stage of the image-based upgrade with Lifecycle Agent

An automatic rollback is initiated if the upgrade does not complete within the time frame specified in the initMonitorTimeoutSeconds field after rebooting.

Example ImageBasedUpgrade CR
apiVersion: lca.openshift.io/v1
kind: ImageBasedUpgrade
metadata:
  name: upgrade
spec:
  stage: Idle
  seedImageRef:
    version: 4.15.2
    image: <seed_container_image>
  autoRollbackOnFailure: {}
#    initMonitorTimeoutSeconds: 1800 (1)
[...]
1 (Optional) Specify the time frame in seconds to roll back if the upgrade does not complete within that time frame after the first reboot. If not defined or set to 0, the default value of 1800 seconds (30 minutes) is used.

You can manually roll back the changes if you encounter unresolvable issues after an upgrade.

Prerequisites
  • Log in to the hub cluster as a user with cluster-admin privileges.

Procedure
  1. To move to the rollback stage, patch the value of the stage field to Rollback in the ImageBasedUpgrade CR by running the following command:

    $ oc patch imagebasedupgrades.lca.openshift.io upgrade -p='{"spec": {"stage": "Rollback"}}' --type=merge

    The Lifecycle Agent reboots the cluster with the previously installed version of OKD and restores the applications.

  2. If you are satisfied with the changes, finalize the rollback by patching the value of the stage field to Idle in the ImageBasedUpgrade CR by running the following command:

    $ oc patch imagebasedupgrades.lca.openshift.io upgrade -p='{"spec": {"stage": "Idle"}}' --type=merge -n openshift-lifecycle-agent

    If you move to the Idle stage after a rollback, the Lifecycle Agent cleans up resources that can be used to troubleshoot a failed upgrade.

Troubleshooting image-based upgrades with Lifecycle Agent

You can encounter issues during the image-based upgrade.

Collecting logs

You can use the oc adm must-gather CLI to collect information for debugging and troubleshooting.

Procedure
  • Collect data about the Operators by running the following command:

    $  oc adm must-gather \
      --dest-dir=must-gather/tmp \
      --image=$(oc -n openshift-lifecycle-agent get deployment.apps/lifecycle-agent-controller-manager -o jsonpath='{.spec.template.spec.containers[?(@.name == "manager")].image}') \
      --image=quay.io/konveyor/oadp-must-gather:latest \(1)
      --image=quay.io/openshift/origin-must-gather:latest (2)
    1 (Optional) You can add this options if you need to gather more information from the OADP Operator.
    2 (Optional) You can add this options if you need to gather more information from the SR-IOV Operator.

AbortFailed or FinalizeFailed error

Issue

During the finalize stage or when you stop the process at the Prep stage, Lifecycle Agent cleans up the following resources:

  • Stateroot that is no longer required

  • Precaching resources

  • OADP CRs

  • ImageBasedUpgrade CR

If the Lifecycle Agent fails to perform the above steps, it transitions to the AbortFailed or FinalizeFailed states. The condition message and log show which steps failed.

Example error message
message: failed to delete all the backup CRs. Perform cleanup manually then add 'lca.openshift.io/manual-cleanup-done' annotation to ibu CR to transition back to Idle
      observedGeneration: 5
      reason: AbortFailed
      status: "False"
      type: Idle
Resolution
  1. Inspect the logs to determine why the failure occurred.

  2. To prompt Lifecycle Agent to retry the cleanup, add the lca.openshift.io/manual-cleanup-done annotation to the ImageBasedUpgrade CR.

    After observing this annotation, Lifecycle Agent retries the cleanup and, if it is successful, the ImageBasedUpgrade stage transitions to Idle.

    If the cleanup fails again, you can manually clean up the resources.

Cleaning up stateroot manually

Issue

Stopping at the Prep stage, Lifecycle Agent cleans up the new stateroot. When finalizing after a successful upgrade or a rollback, Lifecycle Agent cleans up the old stateroot. If this step fails, it is recommended that you inspect the logs to determine why the failure occurred.

Resolution
  1. Check if there are any existing deployments in the stateroot by running the following command:

    $ ostree admin status
  2. If there are any, clean up the existing deployment by running the following command:

    $ ostree admin undeploy <index_of_deployment>
  3. After cleaning up all the deployments of the stateroot, wipe the stateroot directory by running the following commands:

    Ensure that the booted deployment is not in this stateroot.

    $ stateroot="<stateroot_to_delete>"
    $ unshare -m /bin/sh -c "mount -o remount,rw /sysroot && rm -rf /sysroot/ostree/deploy/${stateroot}"

Cleaning up OADP resources manually

Issue

Automatic cleanup of OADP resources can fail due to connection issues between Lifecycle Agent and the S3 backend. By restoring the connection and adding the lca.openshift.io/manual-cleanup-done annotation, the Lifecycle Agent can successfully cleanup backup resources.

Resolution
  1. Check the backend connectivity by running the following command:

    $ oc get backupstoragelocations.velero.io -n openshift-adp
    Example output
    NAME                          PHASE       LAST VALIDATED   AGE   DEFAULT
    dataprotectionapplication-1   Available   33s              8d    true
  2. Remove all backup resources and then add the lca.openshift.io/manual-cleanup-done annotation to the ImageBasedUpgrade CR.

LVM Storage volume contents not restored

When LVM Storage is used to provide dynamic persistent volume storage, LVM Storage might not restore the persistent volume contents if it is configured incorrectly.

Missing LVM Storage-related fields in Backup CR

Issue

Your Backup CRs might be missing fields that are needed to restore your persistent volumes. You can check for events in your application pod to determine if you have this issue by running the following:

$ oc describe pod <your_app_name>
Example output showing missing LVM Storage-related fields in Backup CR
Events:
  Type     Reason            Age                From               Message
  ----     ------            ----               ----               -------
  Warning  FailedScheduling  58s (x2 over 66s)  default-scheduler  0/1 nodes are available: pod has unbound immediate PersistentVolumeClaims. preemption: 0/1 nodes are available: 1 Preemption is not helpful for scheduling..
  Normal   Scheduled         56s                default-scheduler  Successfully assigned default/db-1234 to sno1.example.lab
  Warning  FailedMount       24s (x7 over 55s)  kubelet            MountVolume.SetUp failed for volume "pvc-1234" : rpc error: code = Unknown desc = VolumeID is not found
Resolution

You must include logicalvolumes.topolvm.io in the application Backup CR. Without this resource, the application restores its persistent volume claims and persistent volume manifests correctly, however, the logicalvolume associated with this persistent volume is not restored properly after pivot.

Example Backup CR
apiVersion: velero.io/v1
kind: Backup
metadata:
  labels:
    velero.io/storage-location: default
  name: small-app
  namespace: openshift-adp
spec:
  includedNamespaces:
  - test
  includedNamespaceScopedResources:
  - secrets
  - persistentvolumeclaims
  - deployments
  - statefulsets
  includedClusterScopedResources: (1)
  - persistentVolumes
  - volumesnapshotcontents
  - logicalvolumes.topolvm.io
1 To restore the persistent volumes for your application, you must configure this section as shown.

Missing LVM Storage-related fields in Restore CR

Issue

The expected resources for the applications are restored but the persistent volume contents are not preserved after upgrading.

  1. List the persistent volumes for you applications by running the following command before pivot:

    $ oc get pv,pvc,logicalvolumes.topolvm.io -A
    Example output before pivot
    NAME                        CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   RECLAIM POLICY   STATUS   CLAIM            STORAGECLASS   REASON   AGE
    persistentvolume/pvc-1234   1Gi        RWO            Retain           Bound    default/pvc-db   lvms-vg1                4h45m
    
    NAMESPACE   NAME                           STATUS   VOLUME     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS   AGE
    default     persistentvolumeclaim/pvc-db   Bound    pvc-1234   1Gi        RWO            lvms-vg1       4h45m
    
    NAMESPACE   NAME                                AGE
                logicalvolume.topolvm.io/pvc-1234   4h45m
  2. List the persistent volumes for you applications by running the following command after pivot:

    $ oc get pv,pvc,logicalvolumes.topolvm.io -A
    Example output after pivot
    NAME                        CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   RECLAIM POLICY   STATUS   CLAIM            STORAGECLASS   REASON   AGE
    persistentvolume/pvc-1234   1Gi        RWO            Delete           Bound    default/pvc-db   lvms-vg1                19s
    
    NAMESPACE   NAME                           STATUS   VOLUME     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS   AGE
    default     persistentvolumeclaim/pvc-db   Bound    pvc-1234   1Gi        RWO            lvms-vg1       19s
    
    NAMESPACE   NAME                                AGE
                logicalvolume.topolvm.io/pvc-1234   18s
Resolution

The reason for this issue is that the logicalvolume status is not preserved in the Restore CR. This status is important because it is required for Velero to reference the volumes that must be preserved after pivoting. You must include the following fields in the application Restore CR:

Example Restore CR
apiVersion: velero.io/v1
kind: Restore
metadata:
  name: sample-vote-app
  namespace: openshift-adp
  labels:
    velero.io/storage-location: default
  annotations:
    lca.openshift.io/apply-wave: "3"
spec:
  backupName:
    sample-vote-app
  restorePVs: true (1)
  restoreStatus: (2)
    includedResources:
      - logicalvolumes
1 To preserve the persistent volumes for your application, you must set restorePVs to true.
2 To preserve the persistent volumes for your application, you must configure this section as shown.

Debugging failed Backup and Restore CRs

Issue

The backup or restoration of artifacts failed.

Resolution

You can debug Backup and Restore CRs and retrieve logs with the Velero CLI tool. The Velero CLI tool provides more detailed information than the OpenShift CLI tool.

  1. Describe the Backup CR that contains errors by running the following command:

    $ oc exec -n openshift-adp velero-7c87d58c7b-sw6fc -c velero -- ./velero describe backup -n openshift-adp backup-acm-klusterlet --details
  2. Describe the Restore CR that contains errors by running the following command:

    $ oc exec -n openshift-adp velero-7c87d58c7b-sw6fc -c velero -- ./velero describe restore -n openshift-adp restore-acm-klusterlet --details
  3. Download the backed up resources to a local directory by running the following command:

    $ oc exec -n openshift-adp velero-7c87d58c7b-sw6fc -c velero -- ./velero backup download -n openshift-adp backup-acm-klusterlet -o ~/backup-acm-klusterlet.tar.gz