In OKD version 4, you can install a cluster on Google Cloud Platform (GCP) that uses infrastructure that you provide.

The steps for performing a user-provided infrastructure install are outlined here. Several Deployment Manager templates are provided to assist in completing these steps or to help model your own. You are also free to create the required resources through other methods.

The steps for performing a user-provisioned infrastructure installation are provided as an example only. Installing a cluster with infrastructure you provide requires knowledge of the cloud provider and the installation process of OKD. Several Deployment Manager templates are provided to assist in completing these steps or to help model your own. You are also free to create the required resources through other methods; the templates are just an example.


Certificate signing requests management

Because your cluster has limited access to automatic machine management when you use infrastructure that you provision, you must provide a mechanism for approving cluster certificate signing requests (CSRs) after installation. The kube-controller-manager only approves the kubelet client CSRs. The machine-approver cannot guarantee the validity of a serving certificate that is requested by using kubelet credentials because it cannot confirm that the correct machine issued the request. You must determine and implement a method of verifying the validity of the kubelet serving certificate requests and approving them.

Configuring your GCP project

Before you can install OKD, you must configure a Google Cloud Platform (GCP) project to host it.

Creating a GCP project

To install OKD, you must create a project in your Google Cloud Platform (GCP) account to host the cluster.

  • Create a project to host your OKD cluster. See Creating and Managing Projects in the GCP documentation.

    Your GCP project must use the Premium Network Service Tier if you are using installer-provisioned infrastructure. The Standard Network Service Tier is not supported for clusters installed using the installation program. The installation program configures internal load balancing for the api-int.<cluster_name>.<base_domain> URL; the Premium Tier is required for internal load balancing.

Enabling API services in GCP

Your Google Cloud Platform (GCP) project requires access to several API services to complete OKD installation.

  • You created a project to host your cluster.

  • Enable the following required API services in the project that hosts your cluster. You may also enable optional API services which are not required for installation. See Enabling services in the GCP documentation.

    Table 1. Required API services
    API service Console service name

    Compute Engine API


    Cloud Resource Manager API


    Google DNS API


    IAM Service Account Credentials API


    Identity and Access Management (IAM) API


    Service Usage API


    Table 2. Optional API services
    API service Console service name

    Cloud Deployment Manager V2 API


    Google Cloud APIs


    Service Management API


    Google Cloud Storage JSON API


    Cloud Storage


Configuring DNS for GCP

To install OKD, the Google Cloud Platform (GCP) account you use must have a dedicated public hosted zone in the same project that you host the OKD cluster. This zone must be authoritative for the domain. The DNS service provides cluster DNS resolution and name lookup for external connections to the cluster.

  1. Identify your domain, or subdomain, and registrar. You can transfer an existing domain and registrar or obtain a new one through GCP or another source.

    If you purchase a new domain, it can take time for the relevant DNS changes to propagate. For more information about purchasing domains through Google, see Google Domains.

  2. Create a public hosted zone for your domain or subdomain in your GCP project. See Creating public zones in the GCP documentation.

    Use an appropriate root domain, such as openshiftcorp.com, or subdomain, such as clusters.openshiftcorp.com.

  3. Extract the new authoritative name servers from the hosted zone records. See Look up your Cloud DNS name servers in the GCP documentation.

    You typically have four name servers.

  4. Update the registrar records for the name servers that your domain uses. For example, if you registered your domain to Google Domains, see the following topic in the Google Domains Help: How to switch to custom name servers.

  5. If you migrated your root domain to Google Cloud DNS, migrate your DNS records. See Migrating to Cloud DNS in the GCP documentation.

  6. If you use a subdomain, follow your company’s procedures to add its delegation records to the parent domain. This process might include a request to your company’s IT department or the division that controls the root domain and DNS services for your company.

GCP account limits

The OKD cluster uses a number of Google Cloud Platform (GCP) components, but the default Quotas do not affect your ability to install a default OKD cluster.

A default cluster, which contains three compute and three control plane machines, uses the following resources. Note that some resources are required only during the bootstrap process and are removed after the cluster deploys.

Table 3. GCP resources used in a default cluster
Service Component Location Total resources required Resources removed after bootstrap

Service account





Firewall rules





Forwarding rules





Health checks






























Target pools





If any of the quotas are insufficient during installation, the installation program displays an error that states both which quota was exceeded and the region.

Be sure to consider your actual cluster size, planned cluster growth, and any usage from other clusters that are associated with your account. The CPU, static IP addresses, and persistent disk SSD (storage) quotas are the ones that are most likely to be insufficient.

If you plan to deploy your cluster in one of the following regions, you will exceed the maximum storage quota and are likely to exceed the CPU quota limit:

  • asia-east2

  • asia-northeast2

  • asia-south1

  • australia-southeast1

  • europe-north1

  • europe-west2

  • europe-west3

  • europe-west6

  • northamerica-northeast1

  • southamerica-east1

  • us-west2

You can increase resource quotas from the GCP console, but you might need to file a support ticket. Be sure to plan your cluster size early so that you can allow time to resolve the support ticket before you install your OKD cluster.

Creating a service account in GCP

OKD requires a Google Cloud Platform (GCP) service account that provides authentication and authorization to access data in the Google APIs. If you do not have an existing IAM service account that contains the required roles in your project, you must create one.

  • You created a project to host your cluster.

  1. Create a service account in the project that you use to host your OKD cluster. See Creating a service account in the GCP documentation.

  2. Grant the service account the appropriate permissions. You can either grant the individual permissions that follow or assign the Owner role to it. See Granting roles to a service account for specific resources.

    While making the service account an owner of the project is the easiest way to gain the required permissions, it means that service account has complete control over the project. You must determine if the risk that comes from offering that power is acceptable.

  3. You can create the service account key in JSON format, or attach the service account to a GCP virtual machine. See Creating service account keys and Creating and enabling service accounts for instances in the GCP documentation.

    You must have a service account key or a virtual machine with an attached service account to create the cluster.

    If you use a virtual machine with an attached service account to create your cluster, you must set credentialsMode: Manual in the install-config.yaml file before installation.

Required GCP permissions

When you attach the Owner role to the service account that you create, you grant that service account all permissions, including those that are required to install OKD. To deploy an OKD cluster, the service account requires the following permissions. If you deploy your cluster into an existing VPC, the service account does not require certain networking permissions, which are noted in the following lists:

Required roles for the installation program
  • Compute Admin

  • IAM Security Admin

  • Service Account Admin

  • Service Account User

  • Storage Admin

The following are the required permissions for provisioning GCP infrastructure for creating and deleting the OKD cluster.

Required permissions for creating network resources
  • compute.addresses.create

  • compute.addresses.createInternal

  • compute.addresses.delete

  • compute.addresses.get

  • compute.addresses.list

  • compute.addresses.use

  • compute.addresses.useInternal

  • compute.firewalls.create

  • compute.firewalls.delete

  • compute.firewalls.get

  • compute.firewalls.list

  • compute.forwardingRules.create

  • compute.forwardingRules.get

  • compute.forwardingRules.list

  • compute.forwardingRules.setLabels

  • compute.networks.create

  • compute.networks.get

  • compute.networks.list

  • compute.networks.updatePolicy

  • compute.routers.create

  • compute.routers.get

  • compute.routers.list

  • compute.routers.update

  • compute.routes.list

  • compute.subnetworks.create

  • compute.subnetworks.get

  • compute.subnetworks.list

  • compute.subnetworks.use

  • compute.subnetworks.useExternalIp

Required permissions for creating load balancer resources
  • compute.regionBackendServices.create

  • compute.regionBackendServices.get

  • compute.regionBackendServices.list

  • compute.regionBackendServices.update

  • compute.regionBackendServices.use

  • compute.targetPools.addInstance

  • compute.targetPools.create

  • compute.targetPools.get

  • compute.targetPools.list

  • compute.targetPools.removeInstance

  • compute.targetPools.use

Required permissions for creating DNS resources
  • dns.changes.create

  • dns.changes.get

  • dns.managedZones.create

  • dns.managedZones.get

  • dns.managedZones.list

  • dns.networks.bindPrivateDNSZone

  • dns.resourceRecordSets.create

  • dns.resourceRecordSets.list

  • dns.resourceRecordSets.update

  • dns.resourceRecordSets.update

Required permissions for creating Service Account resources
  • iam.serviceAccountKeys.create

  • iam.serviceAccountKeys.delete

  • iam.serviceAccountKeys.get

  • iam.serviceAccountKeys.list

  • iam.serviceAccounts.actAs

  • iam.serviceAccounts.create

  • iam.serviceAccounts.delete

  • iam.serviceAccounts.get

  • iam.serviceAccounts.list

  • resourcemanager.projects.get

  • resourcemanager.projects.getIamPolicy

  • resourcemanager.projects.setIamPolicy

Required permissions for creating compute resources
  • compute.disks.create

  • compute.disks.get

  • compute.disks.list

  • compute.instanceGroups.create

  • compute.instanceGroups.delete

  • compute.instanceGroups.get

  • compute.instanceGroups.list

  • compute.instanceGroups.update

  • compute.instanceGroups.use

  • compute.instances.create

  • compute.instances.delete

  • compute.instances.get

  • compute.instances.list

  • compute.instances.setLabels

  • compute.instances.setMetadata

  • compute.instances.setServiceAccount

  • compute.instances.setTags

  • compute.instances.use

  • compute.machineTypes.get

  • compute.machineTypes.list

Required for creating storage resources
  • storage.buckets.create

  • storage.buckets.delete

  • storage.buckets.get

  • storage.buckets.list

  • storage.objects.create

  • storage.objects.delete

  • storage.objects.get

  • storage.objects.list

Required permissions for creating health check resources
  • compute.healthChecks.create

  • compute.healthChecks.get

  • compute.healthChecks.list

  • compute.healthChecks.useReadOnly

  • compute.httpHealthChecks.create

  • compute.httpHealthChecks.get

  • compute.httpHealthChecks.list

  • compute.httpHealthChecks.useReadOnly

Required permissions to get GCP zone and region related information
  • compute.globalOperations.get

  • compute.regionOperations.get

  • compute.regions.list

  • compute.zoneOperations.get

  • compute.zones.get

  • compute.zones.list

Required permissions for checking services and quotas
  • monitoring.timeSeries.list

  • serviceusage.quotas.get

  • serviceusage.services.list

Required IAM permissions for installation
  • iam.roles.get

Required Images permissions for installation
  • compute.images.create

  • compute.images.delete

  • compute.images.get

  • compute.images.list

Optional permission for running gather bootstrap
  • compute.instances.getSerialPortOutput

Required permissions for deleting network resources
  • compute.addresses.delete

  • compute.addresses.deleteInternal

  • compute.addresses.list

  • compute.firewalls.delete

  • compute.firewalls.list

  • compute.forwardingRules.delete

  • compute.forwardingRules.list

  • compute.networks.delete

  • compute.networks.list

  • compute.networks.updatePolicy

  • compute.routers.delete

  • compute.routers.list

  • compute.routes.list

  • compute.subnetworks.delete

  • compute.subnetworks.list

Required permissions for deleting load balancer resources
  • compute.regionBackendServices.delete

  • compute.regionBackendServices.list

  • compute.targetPools.delete

  • compute.targetPools.list

Required permissions for deleting DNS resources
  • dns.changes.create

  • dns.managedZones.delete

  • dns.managedZones.get

  • dns.managedZones.list

  • dns.resourceRecordSets.delete

  • dns.resourceRecordSets.list

Required permissions for deleting Service Account resources
  • iam.serviceAccounts.delete

  • iam.serviceAccounts.get

  • iam.serviceAccounts.list

  • resourcemanager.projects.getIamPolicy

  • resourcemanager.projects.setIamPolicy

Required permissions for deleting compute resources
  • compute.disks.delete

  • compute.disks.list

  • compute.instanceGroups.delete

  • compute.instanceGroups.list

  • compute.instances.delete

  • compute.instances.list

  • compute.instances.stop

  • compute.machineTypes.list

Required for deleting storage resources
  • storage.buckets.delete

  • storage.buckets.getIamPolicy

  • storage.buckets.list

  • storage.objects.delete

  • storage.objects.list

Required permissions for deleting health check resources
  • compute.healthChecks.delete

  • compute.healthChecks.list

  • compute.httpHealthChecks.delete

  • compute.httpHealthChecks.list

Required Images permissions for deletion
  • compute.images.delete

  • compute.images.list

Required roles for creating network resources during installation
  • DNS Administrator

Required roles for using passthrough credentials mode
  • Compute Load Balancer Admin

  • IAM Role Viewer

Required roles for user-provisioned GCP infrastructure
  • Deployment Manager Editor

  • Service Account Key Admin

The following are the additional permissions required for user-provisioned GCP infrastructure for creating and deleting the OKD cluster.

Required permissions to get Region related information
  • compute.regions.get

Required Deployment Manager permissions
  • deploymentmanager.deployments.create

  • deploymentmanager.deployments.delete

  • deploymentmanager.deployments.get

  • deploymentmanager.deployments.list

  • deploymentmanager.manifests.get

  • deploymentmanager.operations.get

  • deploymentmanager.resources.list

Optional roles

For the cluster to create new limited credentials for its Operators, add the following role:

  • Service Account Key Admin

The roles are applied to the service accounts that the control plane and compute machines use:

Table 4. GCP service account permissions
Account Roles

Control Plane









Supported GCP regions

You can deploy an OKD cluster to the following Google Cloud Platform (GCP) regions:

  • asia-east1 (Changhua County, Taiwan)

  • asia-east2 (Hong Kong)

  • asia-northeast1 (Tokyo, Japan)

  • asia-northeast2 (Osaka, Japan)

  • asia-northeast3 (Seoul, South Korea)

  • asia-south1 (Mumbai, India)

  • asia-south2 (Delhi, India)

  • asia-southeast1 (Jurong West, Singapore)

  • asia-southeast2 (Jakarta, Indonesia)

  • australia-southeast1 (Sydney, Australia)

  • australia-southeast2 (Melbourne, Australia)

  • europe-central2 (Warsaw, Poland)

  • europe-north1 (Hamina, Finland)

  • europe-southwest1 (Madrid, Spain)

  • europe-west1 (St. Ghislain, Belgium)

  • europe-west2 (London, England, UK)

  • europe-west3 (Frankfurt, Germany)

  • europe-west4 (Eemshaven, Netherlands)

  • europe-west6 (Zürich, Switzerland)

  • europe-west8 (Milan, Italy)

  • europe-west9 (Paris, France)

  • me-west1 (Tel Aviv, Israel)

  • northamerica-northeast1 (Montréal, Québec, Canada)

  • northamerica-northeast2 (Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

  • southamerica-east1 (São Paulo, Brazil)

  • southamerica-west1 (Santiago, Chile)

  • us-central1 (Council Bluffs, Iowa, USA)

  • us-east1 (Moncks Corner, South Carolina, USA)

  • us-east4 (Ashburn, Northern Virginia, USA)

  • us-east5 (Columbus, Ohio)

  • us-south1 (Dallas, Texas)

  • us-west1 (The Dalles, Oregon, USA)

  • us-west2 (Los Angeles, California, USA)

  • us-west3 (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA)

  • us-west4 (Las Vegas, Nevada, USA)

Installing and configuring CLI tools for GCP

To install OKD on Google Cloud Platform (GCP) using user-provisioned infrastructure, you must install and configure the CLI tools for GCP.

  • You created a project to host your cluster.

  • You created a service account and granted it the required permissions.

  1. Install the following binaries in $PATH:

    • gcloud

    • gsutil

    See Install the latest Cloud SDK version in the GCP documentation.

  2. Authenticate using the gcloud tool with your configured service account.

    See Authorizing with a service account in the GCP documentation.

Requirements for a cluster with user-provisioned infrastructure

For a cluster that contains user-provisioned infrastructure, you must deploy all of the required machines.

This section describes the requirements for deploying OKD on user-provisioned infrastructure.

Required machines for cluster installation

The smallest OKD clusters require the following hosts:

Table 5. Minimum required hosts
Hosts Description

One temporary bootstrap machine

The cluster requires the bootstrap machine to deploy the OKD cluster on the three control plane machines. You can remove the bootstrap machine after you install the cluster.

Three control plane machines

The control plane machines run the Kubernetes and OKD services that form the control plane.

At least two compute machines, which are also known as worker machines.

The workloads requested by OKD users run on the compute machines.

To maintain high availability of your cluster, use separate physical hosts for these cluster machines.

The bootstrap and control plane machines must use Fedora CoreOS (FCOS) as the operating system. However, the compute machines can choose between Fedora CoreOS (FCOS), Fedora 8.4, or Fedora 8.5.

Minimum resource requirements for cluster installation

Each cluster machine must meet the following minimum requirements:

Table 6. Minimum resource requirements
Machine Operating System vCPU [1] Virtual RAM Storage IOPS [2]




16 GB

100 GB


Control plane



16 GB

100 GB





8 GB

100 GB


  1. One vCPU is equivalent to one physical core when simultaneous multithreading (SMT), or hyperthreading, is not enabled. When enabled, use the following formula to calculate the corresponding ratio: (threads per core × cores) × sockets = vCPUs.

  2. OKD and Kubernetes are sensitive to disk performance, and faster storage is recommended, particularly for etcd on the control plane nodes which require a 10 ms p99 fsync duration. Note that on many cloud platforms, storage size and IOPS scale together, so you might need to over-allocate storage volume to obtain sufficient performance.

  3. As with all user-provisioned installations, if you choose to use Fedora compute machines in your cluster, you take responsibility for all operating system life cycle management and maintenance, including performing system updates, applying patches, and completing all other required tasks. Use of Fedora 7 compute machines is deprecated and has been removed in OKD 4.10 and later.

If an instance type for your platform meets the minimum requirements for cluster machines, it is supported to use in OKD.

Tested instance types for GCP

The following Google Cloud Platform instance types have been tested with OKD.

Machine series
  • C2

  • E2

  • M1

  • N1

  • N2

  • N2D

  • Tau T2D

Using custom machine types

Using a custom machine type to install a OKD cluster is supported.

Consider the following when using a custom machine type:

  • Similar to predefined instance types, custom machine types must meet the minimum resource requirements for control plane and compute machines. For more information, see "Minimum resource requirements for cluster installation".

  • The name of the custom machine type must adhere to the following syntax:


    For example, custom-6-20480.

Creating the installation files for GCP

To install OKD on Google Cloud Platform (GCP) using user-provisioned infrastructure, you must generate the files that the installation program needs to deploy your cluster and modify them so that the cluster creates only the machines that it will use. You generate and customize the install-config.yaml file, Kubernetes manifests, and Ignition config files. You also have the option to first set up a separate var partition during the preparation phases of installation.

Optional: Creating a separate /var partition

It is recommended that disk partitioning for OKD be left to the installer. However, there are cases where you might want to create separate partitions in a part of the filesystem that you expect to grow.

OKD supports the addition of a single partition to attach storage to either the /var partition or a subdirectory of /var. For example:

  • /var/lib/containers: Holds container-related content that can grow as more images and containers are added to a system.

  • /var/lib/etcd: Holds data that you might want to keep separate for purposes such as performance optimization of etcd storage.

  • /var: Holds data that you might want to keep separate for purposes such as auditing.

Storing the contents of a /var directory separately makes it easier to grow storage for those areas as needed and reinstall OKD at a later date and keep that data intact. With this method, you will not have to pull all your containers again, nor will you have to copy massive log files when you update systems.

Because /var must be in place before a fresh installation of Fedora CoreOS (FCOS), the following procedure sets up the separate /var partition by creating a machine config manifest that is inserted during the openshift-install preparation phases of an OKD installation.

If you follow the steps to create a separate /var partition in this procedure, it is not necessary to create the Kubernetes manifest and Ignition config files again as described later in this section.

  1. Create a directory to hold the OKD installation files:

    $ mkdir $HOME/clusterconfig
  2. Run openshift-install to create a set of files in the manifest and openshift subdirectories. Answer the system questions as you are prompted:

    $ openshift-install create manifests --dir $HOME/clusterconfig
    Example output
    ? SSH Public Key ...
    INFO Credentials loaded from the "myprofile" profile in file "/home/myuser/.aws/credentials"
    INFO Consuming Install Config from target directory
    INFO Manifests created in: $HOME/clusterconfig/manifests and $HOME/clusterconfig/openshift
  3. Optional: Confirm that the installation program created manifests in the clusterconfig/openshift directory:

    $ ls $HOME/clusterconfig/openshift/
    Example output
  4. Create a Butane config that configures the additional partition. For example, name the file $HOME/clusterconfig/98-var-partition.bu, change the disk device name to the name of the storage device on the worker systems, and set the storage size as appropriate. This example places the /var directory on a separate partition:

    variant: openshift
    version: 4.12.0
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker
      name: 98-var-partition
      - device: /dev/<device_name> (1)
        - label: var
          start_mib: <partition_start_offset> (2)
          size_mib: <partition_size> (3)
        - device: /dev/disk/by-partlabel/var
          path: /var
          format: xfs
          mount_options: [defaults, prjquota] (4)
          with_mount_unit: true
    1 The storage device name of the disk that you want to partition.
    2 When adding a data partition to the boot disk, a minimum value of 25000 MiB (Mebibytes) is recommended. The root file system is automatically resized to fill all available space up to the specified offset. If no value is specified, or if the specified value is smaller than the recommended minimum, the resulting root file system will be too small, and future reinstalls of FCOS might overwrite the beginning of the data partition.
    3 The size of the data partition in mebibytes.
    4 The prjquota mount option must be enabled for filesystems used for container storage.

    When creating a separate /var partition, you cannot use different instance types for worker nodes, if the different instance types do not have the same device name.

  5. Create a manifest from the Butane config and save it to the clusterconfig/openshift directory. For example, run the following command:

    $ butane $HOME/clusterconfig/98-var-partition.bu -o $HOME/clusterconfig/openshift/98-var-partition.yaml
  6. Run openshift-install again to create Ignition configs from a set of files in the manifest and openshift subdirectories:

    $ openshift-install create ignition-configs --dir $HOME/clusterconfig
    $ ls $HOME/clusterconfig/
    auth  bootstrap.ign  master.ign  metadata.json  worker.ign

Now you can use the Ignition config files as input to the installation procedures to install Fedora CoreOS (FCOS) systems.

Creating the installation configuration file

You can customize the OKD cluster you install on Google Cloud Platform (GCP).

  • Obtain the OKD installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

  • Obtain service principal permissions at the subscription level.

  1. Create the install-config.yaml file.

    1. Change to the directory that contains the installation program and run the following command:

      $ ./openshift-install create install-config --dir <installation_directory> (1)
      1 For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name to store the files that the installation program creates.

      When specifying the directory:

      • Verify that the directory has the execute permission. This permission is required to run Terraform binaries under the installation directory.

      • Use an empty directory. Some installation assets, such as bootstrap X.509 certificates, have short expiration intervals, therefore you must not reuse an installation directory. If you want to reuse individual files from another cluster installation, you can copy them into your directory. However, the file names for the installation assets might change between releases. Use caution when copying installation files from an earlier OKD version.

    2. At the prompts, provide the configuration details for your cloud:

      1. Optional: Select an SSH key to use to access your cluster machines.

        For production OKD clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

      2. Select gcp as the platform to target.

      3. If you have not configured the service account key for your GCP account on your computer, you must obtain it from GCP and paste the contents of the file or enter the absolute path to the file.

      4. Select the project ID to provision the cluster in. The default value is specified by the service account that you configured.

      5. Select the region to deploy the cluster to.

      6. Select the base domain to deploy the cluster to. The base domain corresponds to the public DNS zone that you created for your cluster.

      7. Enter a descriptive name for your cluster.

      8. Paste the pull secret from the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager. This field is optional.

  2. Modify the install-config.yaml file. You can find more information about the available parameters in the "Installation configuration parameters" section.

    If you are installing a three-node cluster, be sure to set the compute.replicas parameter to 0. This ensures that cluster’s control planes are schedulable. For more information, see "Installing a three-node cluster on GCP".

  3. Back up the install-config.yaml file so that you can use it to install multiple clusters.

    The install-config.yaml file is consumed during the installation process. If you want to reuse the file, you must back it up now.

Configuring the cluster-wide proxy during installation

Production environments can deny direct access to the internet and instead have an HTTP or HTTPS proxy available. You can configure a new OKD cluster to use a proxy by configuring the proxy settings in the install-config.yaml file.

  • You have an existing install-config.yaml file.

  • You reviewed the sites that your cluster requires access to and determined whether any of them need to bypass the proxy. By default, all cluster egress traffic is proxied, including calls to hosting cloud provider APIs. You added sites to the Proxy object’s spec.noProxy field to bypass the proxy if necessary.

    The Proxy object status.noProxy field is populated with the values of the networking.machineNetwork[].cidr, networking.clusterNetwork[].cidr, and networking.serviceNetwork[] fields from your installation configuration.

    For installations on Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure, and OpenStack, the Proxy object status.noProxy field is also populated with the instance metadata endpoint (

  1. Edit your install-config.yaml file and add the proxy settings. For example:

    apiVersion: v1
    baseDomain: my.domain.com
      httpProxy: http://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> (1)
      httpsProxy: https://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> (2)
      noProxy: example.com (3)
    additionalTrustBundle: | (4)
        -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
        -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    additionalTrustBundlePolicy: <policy_to_add_additionalTrustBundle> (5)
    1 A proxy URL to use for creating HTTP connections outside the cluster. The URL scheme must be http.
    2 A proxy URL to use for creating HTTPS connections outside the cluster.
    3 A comma-separated list of destination domain names, IP addresses, or other network CIDRs to exclude from proxying. Preface a domain with . to match subdomains only. For example, .y.com matches x.y.com, but not y.com. Use * to bypass the proxy for all destinations.
    4 If provided, the installation program generates a config map that is named user-ca-bundle in the openshift-config namespace to hold the additional CA certificates. If you provide additionalTrustBundle and at least one proxy setting, the Proxy object is configured to reference the user-ca-bundle config map in the trustedCA field. The Cluster Network Operator then creates a trusted-ca-bundle config map that merges the contents specified for the trustedCA parameter with the FCOS trust bundle. The additionalTrustBundle field is required unless the proxy’s identity certificate is signed by an authority from the FCOS trust bundle.
    5 Optional: The policy to determine the configuration of the Proxy object to reference the user-ca-bundle config map in the trustedCA field. The allowed values are Proxyonly and Always. Use Proxyonly to reference the user-ca-bundle config map only when http/https proxy is configured. Use Always to always reference the user-ca-bundle config map. The default value is Proxyonly.

    The installation program does not support the proxy readinessEndpoints field.

  2. Save the file and reference it when installing OKD.

The installation program creates a cluster-wide proxy that is named cluster that uses the proxy settings in the provided install-config.yaml file. If no proxy settings are provided, a cluster Proxy object is still created, but it will have a nil spec.

Only the Proxy object named cluster is supported, and no additional proxies can be created.

Creating the Kubernetes manifest and Ignition config files

Because you must modify some cluster definition files and manually start the cluster machines, you must generate the Kubernetes manifest and Ignition config files that the cluster needs to configure the machines.

The installation configuration file transforms into the Kubernetes manifests. The manifests wrap into the Ignition configuration files, which are later used to configure the cluster machines.

  • The Ignition config files that the OKD installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours, which are then renewed at that time. If the cluster is shut down before renewing the certificates and the cluster is later restarted after the 24 hours have elapsed, the cluster automatically recovers the expired certificates. The exception is that you must manually approve the pending node-bootstrapper certificate signing requests (CSRs) to recover kubelet certificates. See the documentation for Recovering from expired control plane certificates for more information.

  • It is recommended that you use Ignition config files within 12 hours after they are generated because the 24-hour certificate rotates from 16 to 22 hours after the cluster is installed. By using the Ignition config files within 12 hours, you can avoid installation failure if the certificate update runs during installation.

  • You obtained the OKD installation program.

  • You created the install-config.yaml installation configuration file.

  1. Change to the directory that contains the OKD installation program and generate the Kubernetes manifests for the cluster:

    $ ./openshift-install create manifests --dir <installation_directory> (1)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the installation directory that contains the install-config.yaml file you created.
  2. Remove the Kubernetes manifest files that define the control plane machines:

    $ rm -f <installation_directory>/openshift/99_openshift-cluster-api_master-machines-*.yaml

    By removing these files, you prevent the cluster from automatically generating control plane machines.

  3. Remove the Kubernetes manifest files that define the control plane machine set:

    $ rm -f <installation_directory>/openshift/99_openshift-machine-api_master-control-plane-machine-set.yaml
  4. Optional: If you do not want the cluster to provision compute machines, remove the Kubernetes manifest files that define the worker machines:

    $ rm -f <installation_directory>/openshift/99_openshift-cluster-api_worker-machineset-*.yaml

    Because you create and manage the worker machines yourself, you do not need to initialize these machines.

    If you are installing a three-node cluster, skip the following step to allow the control plane nodes to be schedulable.

    When you configure control plane nodes from the default unschedulable to schedulable, additional subscriptions are required. This is because control plane nodes then become compute nodes.

  5. Check that the mastersSchedulable parameter in the <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-scheduler-02-config.yml Kubernetes manifest file is set to false. This setting prevents pods from being scheduled on the control plane machines:

    1. Open the <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-scheduler-02-config.yml file.

    2. Locate the mastersSchedulable parameter and ensure that it is set to false.

    3. Save and exit the file.

  6. Optional: If you do not want the Ingress Operator to create DNS records on your behalf, remove the privateZone and publicZone sections from the <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-dns-02-config.yml DNS configuration file:

    apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
    kind: DNS
      creationTimestamp: null
      name: cluster
      baseDomain: example.openshift.com
      privateZone: (1)
        id: mycluster-100419-private-zone
      publicZone: (1)
        id: example.openshift.com
    status: {}
    1 Remove this section completely.

    If you do so, you must add ingress DNS records manually in a later step.

  7. To create the Ignition configuration files, run the following command from the directory that contains the installation program:

    $ ./openshift-install create ignition-configs --dir <installation_directory> (1)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the same installation directory.

    Ignition config files are created for the bootstrap, control plane, and compute nodes in the installation directory. The kubeadmin-password and kubeconfig files are created in the ./<installation_directory>/auth directory:

    ├── auth
    │   ├── kubeadmin-password
    │   └── kubeconfig
    ├── bootstrap.ign
    ├── master.ign
    ├── metadata.json
    └── worker.ign

Exporting common variables

Extracting the infrastructure name

The Ignition config files contain a unique cluster identifier that you can use to uniquely identify your cluster in Google Cloud Platform (GCP). The infrastructure name is also used to locate the appropriate GCP resources during an OKD installation. The provided Deployment Manager templates contain references to this infrastructure name, so you must extract it.

  • You obtained the OKD installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

  • You generated the Ignition config files for your cluster.

  • You installed the jq package.

  • To extract and view the infrastructure name from the Ignition config file metadata, run the following command:

    $ jq -r .infraID <installation_directory>/metadata.json (1)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
    Example output
    openshift-vw9j6 (1)
    1 The output of this command is your cluster name and a random string.

Exporting common variables for Deployment Manager templates

You must export a common set of variables that are used with the provided Deployment Manager templates used to assist in completing a user-provided infrastructure install on Google Cloud Platform (GCP).

Specific Deployment Manager templates can also require additional exported variables, which are detailed in their related procedures.

  • Obtain the OKD installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.

  • Install the jq package.

  1. Export the following common variables to be used by the provided Deployment Manager templates:

    $ export BASE_DOMAIN='<base_domain>'
    $ export BASE_DOMAIN_ZONE_NAME='<base_domain_zone_name>'
    $ export NETWORK_CIDR=''
    $ export MASTER_SUBNET_CIDR=''
    $ export WORKER_SUBNET_CIDR=''
    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig (1)
    $ export CLUSTER_NAME=`jq -r .clusterName <installation_directory>/metadata.json`
    $ export INFRA_ID=`jq -r .infraID <installation_directory>/metadata.json`
    $ export PROJECT_NAME=`jq -r .gcp.projectID <installation_directory>/metadata.json`
    $ export REGION=`jq -r .gcp.region <installation_directory>/metadata.json`
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.

Creating a VPC in GCP

You must create a VPC in Google Cloud Platform (GCP) for your OKD cluster to use. You can customize the VPC to meet your requirements. One way to create the VPC is to modify the provided Deployment Manager template.

If you do not use the provided Deployment Manager template to create your GCP infrastructure, you must review the provided information and manually create the infrastructure. If your cluster does not initialize correctly, you might have to contact Red Hat support with your installation logs.

  • Configure a GCP account.

  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.

  1. Copy the template from the Deployment Manager template for the VPC section of this topic and save it as 01_vpc.py on your computer. This template describes the VPC that your cluster requires.

  2. Create a 01_vpc.yaml resource definition file:

    $ cat <<EOF >01_vpc.yaml
    - path: 01_vpc.py
    - name: cluster-vpc
      type: 01_vpc.py
        infra_id: '${INFRA_ID}' (1)
        region: '${REGION}' (2)
        master_subnet_cidr: '${MASTER_SUBNET_CIDR}' (3)
        worker_subnet_cidr: '${WORKER_SUBNET_CIDR}' (4)
    1 infra_id is the INFRA_ID infrastructure name from the extraction step.
    2 region is the region to deploy the cluster into, for example us-central1.
    3 master_subnet_cidr is the CIDR for the master subnet, for example
    4 worker_subnet_cidr is the CIDR for the worker subnet, for example
  3. Create the deployment by using the gcloud CLI:

    $ gcloud deployment-manager deployments create ${INFRA_ID}-vpc --config 01_vpc.yaml

Deployment Manager template for the VPC

You can use the following Deployment Manager template to deploy the VPC that you need for your OKD cluster:

01_vpc.py Deployment Manager template
def GenerateConfig(context):

    resources = [{
        'name': context.properties['infra_id'] + '-network',
        'type': 'compute.v1.network',
        'properties': {
            'region': context.properties['region'],
            'autoCreateSubnetworks': False
    }, {
        'name': context.properties['infra_id'] + '-master-subnet',
        'type': 'compute.v1.subnetwork',
        'properties': {
            'region': context.properties['region'],
            'network': '$(ref.' + context.properties['infra_id'] + '-network.selfLink)',
            'ipCidrRange': context.properties['master_subnet_cidr']
    }, {
        'name': context.properties['infra_id'] + '-worker-subnet',
        'type': 'compute.v1.subnetwork',
        'properties': {
            'region': context.properties['region'],
            'network': '$(ref.' + context.properties['infra_id'] + '-network.selfLink)',
            'ipCidrRange': context.properties['worker_subnet_cidr']
    }, {
        'name': context.properties['infra_id'] + '-router',
        'type': 'compute.v1.router',
        'properties': {
            'region': context.properties['region'],
            'network': '$(ref.' + context.properties['infra_id'] + '-network.selfLink)',
            'nats': [{
                'name': context.properties['infra_id'] + '-nat-master',
                'natIpAllocateOption': 'AUTO_ONLY',
                'minPortsPerVm': 7168,
                'sourceSubnetworkIpRangesToNat': 'LIST_OF_SUBNETWORKS',
                'subnetworks': [{
                    'name': '$(ref.' + context.properties['infra_id'] + '-master-subnet.selfLink)',
                    'sourceIpRangesToNat': ['ALL_IP_RANGES']
            }, {
                'name': context.properties['infra_id'] + '-nat-worker',
                'natIpAllocateOption': 'AUTO_ONLY',
                'minPortsPerVm': 512,
                'sourceSubnetworkIpRangesToNat': 'LIST_OF_SUBNETWORKS',
                'subnetworks': [{
                    'name': '$(ref.' + context.properties['infra_id'] + '-worker-subnet.selfLink)',
                    'sourceIpRangesToNat': ['ALL_IP_RANGES']

    return {'resources': resources}

Networking requirements for user-provisioned infrastructure

All the Fedora CoreOS (FCOS) machines require networking to be configured in initramfs during boot to fetch their Ignition config files.

Setting the cluster node hostnames through DHCP

On Fedora CoreOS (FCOS) machines, the hostname is set through NetworkManager. By default, the machines obtain their hostname through DHCP. If the hostname is not provided by DHCP, set statically through kernel arguments, or another method, it is obtained through a reverse DNS lookup. Reverse DNS lookup occurs after the network has been initialized on a node and can take time to resolve. Other system services can start prior to this and detect the hostname as localhost or similar. You can avoid this by using DHCP to provide the hostname for each cluster node.

Additionally, setting the hostnames through DHCP can bypass any manual DNS record name configuration errors in environments that have a DNS split-horizon implementation.

Network connectivity requirements

You must configure the network connectivity between machines to allow OKD cluster components to communicate. Each machine must be able to resolve the hostnames of all other machines in the cluster.

This section provides details about the ports that are required.

In connected OKD environments, all nodes are required to have internet access to pull images for platform containers and provide telemetry data to Red Hat.

Table 7. Ports used for all-machine to all-machine communications
Protocol Port Description



Network reachability tests





Host level services, including the node exporter on ports 9100-9101 and the Cluster Version Operator on port 9099.


The default ports that Kubernetes reserves









Host level services, including the node exporter on ports 9100-9101.


IPsec IKE packets


IPsec NAT-T packets



Kubernetes node port



IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)

Table 8. Ports used for all-machine to control plane communications
Protocol Port Description



Kubernetes API

Table 9. Ports used for control plane machine to control plane machine communications
Protocol Port Description



etcd server and peer ports

Creating load balancers in GCP

You must configure load balancers in Google Cloud Platform (GCP) for your OKD cluster to use. One way to create these components is to modify the provided Deployment Manager template.

If you do not use the provided Deployment Manager template to create your GCP infrastructure, you must review the provided information and manually create the infrastructure. If your cluster does not initialize correctly, you might have to contact Red Hat support with your installation logs.

  • Configure a GCP account.

  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.

  • Create and configure a VPC and associated subnets in GCP.

  1. Copy the template from the Deployment Manager template for the internal load balancer section of this topic and save it as 02_lb_int.py on your computer. This template describes the internal load balancing objects that your cluster requires.

  2. For an external cluster, also copy the template from the Deployment Manager template for the external load balancer section of this topic and save it as 02_lb_ext.py on your computer. This template describes the external load balancing objects that your cluster requires.

  3. Export the variables that the deployment template uses:

    1. Export the cluster network location:

      $ export CLUSTER_NETWORK=(`gcloud compute networks describe ${INFRA_ID}-network --format json | jq -r .selfLink`)
    2. Export the control plane subnet location:

      $ export CONTROL_SUBNET=(`gcloud compute networks subnets describe ${INFRA_ID}-master-subnet --region=${REGION} --format json | jq -r .selfLink`)
    3. Export the three zones that the cluster uses:

      $ export ZONE_0=(`gcloud compute regions describe ${REGION} --format=json | jq -r .zones[0] | cut -d "/" -f9`)
      $ export ZONE_1=(`gcloud compute regions describe ${REGION} --format=json | jq -r .zones[1] | cut -d "/"</