In OKD version Latest, you can install a customized cluster on Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP). To customize the installation, modify parameters in the install-config.yaml before you install the cluster.

Prerequisites
  • Review details about the OKD installation and update processes.

    • Verify that OKD Latest is compatible with your RHOSP version in the Available platforms section. You can also compare platform support across different versions by viewing the OKD on RHOSP support matrix.

  • Have a storage service installed in RHOSP, like Block Storage (Cinder) or Object Storage (Swift). Object storage is the recommended storage technology for OKD registry cluster deployment. For more information, see Optimizing storage.

  • Have metadata service enabled in RHOSP

Resource guidelines for installing OKD on RHOSP

To support a OKD installation, your Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) quota must meet the following requirements:

Table 1. Recommended resources for a default OKD cluster on RHOSP
Resource Value

Floating IP addresses

3

Ports

15

Routers

1

Subnets

1

RAM

112 GB

vCPUs

28

Volume storage

275 GB

Instances

7

Security groups

3

Security group rules

60

A cluster might function with fewer than recommended resources, but its performance is not guaranteed.

If RHOSP Object Storage (Swift) is available and operated by a user account with the swiftoperator role, it is used as the default backend for the OKD image registry. In this case, the volume storage requirement is 175 GB. Swift space requirements vary depending on the size of the image registry.

By default, your security group and security group rule quotas might be low. If you encounter problems, run openstack quota set --secgroups 3 --secgroup-rules 60 <project> as an administrator to increase them.

An OKD deployment comprises control plane machines, compute machines, and a bootstrap machine.

Control plane and compute machines

By default, the OKD installation process stands up three control plane and three compute machines.

Each machine requires:

  • An instance from the RHOSP quota

  • A port from the RHOSP quota

  • A flavor with at least 16 GB memory, 4 vCPUs, and 25 GB storage space

Compute machines host the applications that you run on OKD; aim to run as many as you can.

Bootstrap machine

During installation, a bootstrap machine is temporarily provisioned to stand up the control plane. After the production control plane is ready, the bootstrap machine is deprovisioned.

The bootstrap machine requires:

  • An instance from the RHOSP quota

  • A port from the RHOSP quota

  • A flavor with at least 16 GB memory, 4 vCPUs, and 25 GB storage space

Enabling Swift on RHOSP

Swift is operated by a user account with the swiftoperator role. Add the role to an account before you run the installation program.

If the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) Object Storage service, commonly known as Swift, is available, OKD uses it as the image registry storage. If it is unavailable, the installation program relies on the RHOSP Block Storage service, commonly known as Cinder.

If Swift is present and you want to use it, you must enable access to it. If it is not present, or if you do not want to use it, skip this section.

Prerequisites
  • You have a RHOSP administrator account on the target environment.

  • The Swift service is installed.

  • On Ceph RGW, the account in url option is enabled.

Procedure

To enable Swift on RHOSP:

  1. As an administrator in the RHOSP CLI, add the swiftoperator role to the account that will access Swift:

    $ openstack role add --user <user> --project <project> swiftoperator

Your RHOSP deployment can now use Swift for the image registry.

Verifying external network access

The OKD installation process requires external network access. You must provide an external network value to it, or deployment fails. Before you begin the process, verify that a network with the External router type exists in Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP).

Prerequisites
  • On RHOSP, the NeutronDhcpAgentDnsmasqDnsServers parameter must be configured to allow DHCP agents to forward instances' DNS queries. One way to set this parameter is to:

    1. Create a new environment file in the template directory.

    2. Provide parameter values in the file. For example:

      Sample neutron-dhcp-agent-dnsmasq-dns-servers.yaml file
      parameter_defaults:
        NeutronDhcpAgentDnsmasqDnsServers: ['<DNS_server_address_1>','<DNS_server_address_2']
    3. Include the environment file in your Overcloud deploy command. For example:

      $ openstack overcloud deploy --templates -e neutron-dhcp-agent-dnsmasq-dns-servers.yaml ...
Procedure
  1. Using the RHOSP CLI, verify the name and ID of the 'External' network:

    $ openstack network list --long -c ID -c Name -c "Router Type"
    
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+-------------+
    | ID                                   | Name           | Router Type |
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+-------------+
    | 148a8023-62a7-4672-b018-003462f8d7dc | public_network | External    |
    +--------------------------------------+----------------+-------------+

A network with an External router type appears in the network list. If at least one does not, see Create an external network.

If the external network’s CIDR range overlaps one of the default network ranges, you must change the matching network ranges in the install-config.yaml file before you start the installation process.

The default network ranges are:

Network Range

machineNetwork

10.0.0.0/16

serviceNetwork

172.30.0.0/16

clusterNetwork

10.128.0.0/14

If the installation program finds multiple networks with the same name, it sets one of them at random. To avoid this behavior, create unique names for resources in RHOSP.

If the Neutron trunk service plug-in is enabled, a trunk port is created by default. For more information, see Neutron trunk port.

Defining parameters for the installation program

The OKD installation program relies on a file that is called clouds.yaml. The file describes Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) configuration parameters, including the project name, log in information, and authorization service URLs.

Procedure
  1. Create the clouds.yaml file:

    • If your RHOSP distribution includes the Horizon web UI, generate a clouds.yaml file in it.

      Remember to add a password to the auth field. You can also keep secrets in a separate file from clouds.yaml.

    • If your RHOSP distribution does not include the Horizon web UI, or you do not want to use Horizon, create the file yourself. For detailed information about clouds.yaml, see Config files in the RHOSP documentation.

      clouds:
        shiftstack:
          auth:
            auth_url: http://10.10.14.42:5000/v3
            project_name: shiftstack
            username: shiftstack_user
            password: XXX
            user_domain_name: Default
            project_domain_name: Default
        dev-env:
          region_name: RegionOne
          auth:
            username: 'devuser'
            password: XXX
            project_name: 'devonly'
            auth_url: 'https://10.10.14.22:5001/v2.0'
  2. If your RHOSP installation uses self-signed certificate authority (CA) certificates for endpoint authentication:

    1. Copy the certificate authority file to your machine.

    2. In the command line, run the following commands to add the machine to the certificate authority trust bundle:

      $ sudo cp ca.crt.pem /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/
      $ sudo update-ca-trust extract
    3. Add the cacerts key to the clouds.yaml file. The value must be an absolute, non-root-accessible path to the CA certificate:

      clouds:
        shiftstack:
          ...
          cacert: "/etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/ca.crt.pem"

      After you run the installer with a custom CA certificate, you can update the certificate by editing the value of the ca-cert.pem key in the cloud-provider-config keymap. On a command line, run:

      $ oc edit configmap -n openshift-config cloud-provider-config
  3. Place the clouds.yaml file in one of the following locations:

    1. The value of the OS_CLIENT_CONFIG_FILE environment variable

    2. The current directory

    3. A Unix-specific user configuration directory, for example ~/.config/openstack/clouds.yaml

    4. A Unix-specific site configuration directory, for example /etc/openstack/clouds.yaml

      The installation program searches for clouds.yaml in that order.

Obtaining the installation program

Before you install OKD, download the installation file on a local computer.

Prerequisites
  • A computer that runs Linux or macOS, with 500 MB of local disk space

Procedure
  1. Download installer from https://github.com/openshift/okd/releases

    The installation program creates several files on the computer that you use to install your cluster. You must keep both the installation program and the files that the installation program creates after you finish installing the cluster.

    Deleting the files created by the installation program does not remove your cluster, even if the cluster failed during installation. You must complete the OKD uninstallation procedures outlined for your specific cloud provider to remove your cluster entirely.

  2. Extract the installation program. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ tar xvf <installation_program>.tar.gz
  3. From the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site, download your installation pull secret as a .txt file. This pull secret allows you to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OKD components.

Creating the installation configuration file

You can customize the OKD cluster you install on Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP).

Prerequisites
  • Download the OKD installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure
  1. Create the install-config.yaml file.

    1. Run the following command:

      $ ./openshift-install create install-config --dir=<installation_directory> (1)
      1 For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name to store the files that the installation program creates.

      Specify an empty directory. Some installation assets, like bootstrap X.509 certificates have short expiration intervals, so you must not reuse an installation directory. If you want to reuse individual files from another cluster installation, you can copy them into your directory. However, the file names for the installation assets might change between releases. Use caution when copying installation files from an earlier OKD version.

    2. At the prompts, provide the configuration details for your cloud:

      1. Optional: Select an SSH key to use to access your cluster machines.

        For production OKD clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

      2. Select openstack as the platform to target.

      3. Specify the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) external network name to use for installing the cluster.

      4. Specify the floating IP address to use for external access to the OpenShift API.

      5. Specify a RHOSP flavor with at least 16 GB RAM to use for control plane and compute nodes.

      6. Select the base domain to deploy the cluster to. All DNS records will be sub-domains of this base and will also include the cluster name.

      7. Enter a name for your cluster. The name must be 14 or fewer characters long.

      8. Paste the pull secret that you obtained from the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. This field is optional.

  2. Modify the install-config.yaml file. You can find more information about the available parameters in the Installation configuration parameters section.

  3. Back up the install-config.yaml file so that you can use it to install multiple clusters.

    The install-config.yaml file is consumed during the installation process. If you want to reuse the file, you must back it up now.

Installation configuration parameters

Before you deploy an OKD cluster, you provide parameter values to describe your account on the cloud platform that hosts your cluster and optionally customize your cluster’s platform. When you create the install-config.yaml installation configuration file, you provide values for the required parameters through the command line. If you customize your cluster, you can modify the install-config.yaml file to provide more details about the platform.

You cannot modify these parameters in the install-config.yaml file after installation.

Table 2. Required parameters
Parameter Description Values

baseDomain

The base domain of your cloud provider. This value is used to create routes to your OKD cluster components. The full DNS name for your cluster is a combination of the baseDomain and metadata.name parameter values that uses the <metadata.name>.<baseDomain> format.

A fully-qualified domain or subdomain name, such as example.com.

controlPlane.platform

The cloud provider to host the control plane machines. This parameter value must match the compute.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, vsphere, or {}

compute.platform

The cloud provider to host the worker machines. This parameter value must match the controlPlane.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, vsphere, or {}

metadata.name

The name of your cluster.

A string that contains lowercase letters, hyphens (-), or periods (.), such as dev. The string must be 14 characters or fewer long.

platform.<platform>.region

The region to deploy your cluster in.

A valid region for your cloud, such as us-east-1 for AWS, centralus for Azure. Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) and vSphere do not use this parameter.

pullSecret

The pull secret that you obtained from the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. You use this pull secret to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OKD components. This field is optional.

{
   "auths":{
      "cloud.openshift.com":{
         "auth":"b3Blb=",
         "email":"you@example.com"
      },
      "quay.io":{
         "auth":"b3Blb=",
         "email":"you@example.com"
      }
   }
}
Table 3. Optional parameters
Parameter Description Values

sshKey

The SSH key to use to access your cluster machines.

For production OKD clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

A valid, local public SSH key that you added to the ssh-agent process.

fips

Whether to enable or disable FIPS mode. By default, FIPS mode is not enabled. If FIPS mode is enabled, the Fedora CoreOS (FCOS) machines that OKD runs on bypass the default Kubernetes cryptography suite and use the cryptography modules that are provided with FCOS instead.

false or true

publish

How to publish the user-facing endpoints of your cluster.

Internal or External. Set publish to Internal to deploy a private cluster, which cannot be accessed from the internet. The default value is External.

compute.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on compute machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

compute.replicas

The number of compute machines, which are also known as worker machines, to provision.

A positive integer greater than or equal to 2. The default value is 3.

controlPlane.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on control plane machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

controlPlane.replicas

The number of control plane machines to provision.

A positive integer greater than or equal to 3. The default value is 3.

Table 4. Additional Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) parameters
Parameter Description Values

compute.platform.openstack.rootVolume.size

For compute machines, the size in gigabytes of the root volume. If you do not set this value, machines use ephemeral storage.

Integer, for example 30.

compute.platform.openstack.rootVolume.type

For compute machines, the root volume’s type.

String, for example performance.

controlPlane.platform.openstack.rootVolume.size

For control plane machines, the size in gigabytes of the root volume. If you do not set this value, machines use ephemeral storage.

Integer, for example 30.

controlPlane.platform.openstack.rootVolume.type

For control plane machines, the root volume’s type.

String, for example performance.

platform.openstack.cloud

The name of the RHOSP cloud to use from the list of clouds in the clouds.yaml file.

String, for example MyCloud.

platform.openstack.externalNetwork

The RHOSP external network name to be used for installation.

String, for example external.

platform.openstack.computeFlavor

The RHOSP flavor to use for control plane and compute machines.

String, for example m1.xlarge.

platform.openstack.lbFloatingIP

An existing floating IP address to associate with the load balancer API.

An IP address, for example 128.0.0.1.

Table 5. Optional RHOSP parameters
Parameter Description Values

compute.platform.openstack.additionalNetworkIDs

Additional networks that are associated with compute machines. Allowed address pairs are not created for additional networks.

A list of one or more UUIDs as strings. For example, fa806b2f-ac49-4bce-b9db-124bc64209bf.

compute.platform.openstack.additionalSecurityGroupIDs

Additional security groups that are associated with compute machines.

A list of one or more UUIDs as strings. For example, 7ee219f3-d2e9-48a1-96c2-e7429f1b0da7.

controlPlane.platform.openstack.additionalNetworkIDs

Additional networks that are associated with control plane machines. Allowed address pairs are not created for additional networks.

A list of one or more UUIDs as strings. For example, fa806b2f-ac49-4bce-b9db-124bc64209bf.

controlPlane.platform.openstack.additionalSecurityGroupIDs

Additional security groups that are associated with control plane machines.

A list of one or more UUIDs as strings. For example, 7ee219f3-d2e9-48a1-96c2-e7429f1b0da7.

platform.openstack.externalDNS

IP addresses for external DNS servers that cluster instances use for DNS resolution.

A list of IP addresses as strings. For example, ["8.8.8.8", "192.168.1.12"].

platform.openstack.defaultMachinePlatform

The default machine pool platform configuration.

{
   "type": "ml.large",
   "rootVolume": {
      "size": 30,
      "type": "performance"
   }
}

platform.openstack.machinesSubnet

The UUID of a RHOSP subnet that the cluster’s nodes use. Nodes and VIP ports are created on this subnet.

The first item in networking.machineNetwork must match the value of machinesSubnet.

If you deploy to a custom subnet, you cannot specify an external DNS server to the OKD installer. Instead, add DNS to the subnet in RHOSP.

A UUID as a string. For example, fa806b2f-ac49-4bce-b9db-124bc64209bf.

Custom subnets in RHOSP deployments

Optionally, you can deploy a cluster on a Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) subnet of your choice. The subnet’s GUID is passed as the value of platform.openstack.machinesSubnet in the install-config.yaml file.

This subnet is used as the cluster’s primary subnet; nodes and ports are created on it.

Before you run the OKD installer with a custom subnet, verify that:

  • The target network and subnet are available.

  • DHCP is enabled on the target subnet.

  • You can provide installer credentials that have permission to create ports on the target network.

  • If your network configuration requires a router, it is created in RHOSP. Some configurations rely on routers for floating IP address translation.

  • Your network configuration does not rely on a provider network. Provider networks are not supported.

By default, the API VIP takes x.x.x.5 and the Ingress VIP takes x.x.x.7 from your network’s CIDR block. To override these default values, set values for platform.openstack.apiVIP and platform.openstack.ingressVIP that are outside of the DHCP allocation pool.

Sample customized install-config.yaml file for RHOSP

This sample install-config.yaml demonstrates all of the possible Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) customization options.

This sample file is provided for reference only. You must obtain your install-config.yaml file by using the installation program.
apiVersion: v1
baseDomain: example.com
clusterID: os-test
controlPlane:
  name: master
  platform: {}
  replicas: 3
compute:
- name: worker
  platform:
    openstack:
      type: ml.large
  replicas: 3
metadata:
  name: example
networking:
  clusterNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
    hostPrefix: 23
  machineNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.0.0.0/16
  serviceNetwork:
  - 172.30.0.0/16
  networkType: OpenShiftSDN
platform:
  openstack:
    cloud: mycloud
    externalNetwork: external
    computeFlavor: m1.xlarge
    lbFloatingIP: 128.0.0.1
fips: false
pullSecret: '{"auths": ...}'
sshKey: ssh-ed25519 AAAA...

Generating an SSH private key and adding it to the agent

If you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery on your cluster, you must provide an SSH key to both your ssh-agent and to the installation program.

In a production environment, you require disaster recovery and debugging.

You can use this key to SSH into the master nodes as the user core. When you deploy the cluster, the key is added to the core user’s ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list.

Procedure
  1. If you do not have an SSH key that is configured for password-less authentication on your computer, create one. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -N '' \
        -f <path>/<file_name> (1)
    1 Specify the path and file name, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa, of the SSH key.

    Running this command generates an SSH key that does not require a password in the location that you specified.

    If you create a new SSH key pair, avoid overwriting existing SSH keys.

  2. Start the ssh-agent process as a background task:

    $ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"
    
    Agent pid 31874
  3. Add your SSH private key to the ssh-agent:

    $ ssh-add <path>/<file_name> (1)
    
    Identity added: /home/<you>/<path>/<file_name> (<computer_name>)
    1 Specify the path and file name for your SSH private key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa
Next steps
  • When you install OKD, provide the SSH public key to the installation program.

Enabling access to the environment

At deployment, all OKD machines are created in a Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP)-tenant network. Therefore, they are not accessible directly in most RHOSP deployments.

You can configure the OKD API and applications that run on the cluster to be accessible with or without floating IP addresses.

Enabling access with floating IP addresses

Create two floating IP (FIP) addresses: one for external access to the OKD API, the API FIP, and one for OKD applications, the apps FIP.

The API FIP is also used in the install-config.yaml file.
Procedure
  1. Using the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) CLI, create the API FIP:

    $ openstack floating ip create --description "API <cluster_name>.<base_domain>" <external network>
  2. Using the Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) CLI, create the apps, or Ingress, FIP:

    $ openstack floating ip create --description "Ingress <cluster_name>.<base_domain>" <external network>
  3. To reflect the new FIPs, add records that follow these patterns to your DNS server:

    api.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>.  IN  A  <API_FIP>
    *.apps.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>. IN  A <apps_FIP>

    If you do not control the DNS server you can add the record to your /etc/hosts file instead. This action makes the API accessible to you only, which is not suitable for production deployment but does allow installation for development and testing.

You can make OKD resources available outside of the cluster by assigning a floating IP address and updating your firewall configuration.

Enabling access without floating IP addresses

If you cannot use floating IP addresses, the OKD installation might still finish. However, the installation program fails after it times out waiting for API access.

After the installation program times out, the cluster might still initialize. After the bootstrapping processing begins, it must complete. You must edit the cluster’s networking configuration after it is deployed.

Deploying the cluster

You can install OKD on a compatible cloud platform.

You can run the create cluster command of the installation program only once, during initial installation.

Prerequisites
  • Obtain the OKD installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure
  1. Run the installation program:

    $ ./openshift-install create cluster --dir=<installation_directory> \ (1)
        --log-level=info (2)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the location of your customized ./install-config.yaml file.
    2 To view different installation details, specify warn, debug, or error instead of info.

    If the cloud provider account that you configured on your host does not have sufficient permissions to deploy the cluster, the installation process stops, and the missing permissions are displayed.

    When the cluster deployment completes, directions for accessing your cluster, including a link to its web console and credentials for the kubeadmin user, display in your terminal.

    The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours. You must keep the cluster running for 24 hours in a non-degraded state to ensure that the first certificate rotation has finished.

    You must not delete the installation program or the files that the installation program creates. Both are required to delete the cluster.

Verifying cluster status

You can verify your OKD cluster’s status during or after installation.

Procedure
  1. In the cluster environment, export the administrator’s kubeconfig file:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig (1)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.

    The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server.

  2. View the control plane and compute machines created after a deployment:

    $ oc get nodes
  3. View your cluster’s version:

    $ oc get clusterversion
  4. View your operators' status:

    $ oc get clusteroperator
  5. View all running Pods in the cluster:

    $ oc get pods -A

Logging in to the cluster

You can log in to your cluster as a default system user by exporting the cluster kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server. The file is specific to a cluster and is created during OKD installation.

Prerequisites
  • Deploy an OKD cluster.

  • Install the oc CLI.

Procedure
  1. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig (1)
    1 For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
  2. Verify you can run oc commands successfully using the exported configuration:

    $ oc whoami
    system:admin

Configuring application access with floating IP addresses

After you install OKD, configure Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) to allow application network traffic.

Prerequisites
  • OKD cluster must be installed

  • Floating IP addresses are enabled as described in Enabling access to the environment.

Procedure

After you install the OKD cluster, attach a floating IP address to the ingress port:

  1. Show the port:

    $ openstack port show <cluster name>-<clusterID>-ingress-port
  2. Attach the port to the IP address:

    $ openstack floating ip set --port <ingress port ID> <apps FIP>
  3. Add a wildcard A record for *apps. to your DNS file:

    *.apps.<cluster name>.<base domain>  IN  A  <apps FIP>

If you do not control the DNS server but want to enable application access for non-production purposes, you can add these hostnames to /etc/hosts:

<apps FIP> console-openshift-console.apps.<cluster name>.<base domain>
<apps FIP> integrated-oauth-server-openshift-authentication.apps.<cluster name>.<base domain>
<apps FIP> oauth-openshift.apps.<cluster name>.<base domain>
<apps FIP> prometheus-k8s-openshift-monitoring.apps.<cluster name>.<base domain>
<apps FIP> grafana-openshift-monitoring.apps.<cluster name>.<base domain>
<apps FIP> <app name>.apps.<cluster name>.<base domain>
Next steps