The default behavior for Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) aims to provide simplicity during Operator installation. However, this behavior can lack flexibility, especially in multitenant clusters. In order for multiple tenants on a OKD cluster to use an Operator, the default behavior of OLM requires that administrators install the Operator in All namespaces mode, which can be considered to violate the principle of least privilege.

Consider the following scenarios to determine which Operator installation workflow works best for your environment and requirements.

Default Operator install modes and behavior

When installing Operators with the web console as an administrator, you typically have two choices for the install mode, depending on the Operator’s capabilities:

Single namespace

Installs the Operator in the chosen single namespace, and makes all permissions that the Operator requests available in that namespace.

All namespaces

Installs the Operator in the default openshift-operators namespace to watch and be made available to all namespaces in the cluster. Makes all permissions that the Operator requests available in all namespaces. In some cases, an Operator author can define metadata to give the user a second option for that Operator’s suggested namespace.

This choice also means that users in the affected namespaces get access to the Operators APIs, which can leverage the custom resources (CRs) they own, depending on their role in the namespace:

  • The namespace-admin and namespace-edit roles can read/write to the Operator APIs, meaning they can use them.

  • The namespace-view role can read CR objects of that Operator.

For Single namespace mode, because the Operator itself installs in the chosen namespace, its pod and service account are also located there. For All namespaces mode, the Operator’s privileges are all automatically elevated to cluster roles, meaning the Operator has those permissions in all namespaces.

Recommended solution for multitenant clusters

While a Multinamespace install mode does exist, it is supported by very few Operators. As a middle ground solution between the standard All namespaces and Single namespace install modes, you can install multiple instances of the same Operator, one for each tenant, by using the following workflow:

  1. Create a namespace for the tenant Operator that is separate from the tenant’s namespace.

  2. Create an Operator group for the tenant Operator scoped only to the tenant’s namespace.

  3. Install the Operator in the tenant Operator namespace.

As a result, the Operator resides in the tenant Operator namespace and watches the tenant namespace, but neither the Operator’s pod nor its service account are visible or usable by the tenant.

This solution provides better tenant separation, least privilege principle at the cost of resource usage, and additional orchestration to ensure the constraints are met. For a detailed procedure, see "Preparing for multiple instances of an Operator for multitenant clusters".

Limitations and considerations

This solution only works when the following constraints are met:

  • All instances of the same Operator must be the same version.

  • The Operator cannot have dependencies on other Operators.

  • The Operator cannot ship a CRD conversion webhook.

You cannot use different versions of the same Operator on the same cluster. Eventually, the installation of another instance of the Operator would be blocked when it meets the following conditions:

  • The instance is not the newest version of the Operator.

  • The instance ships an older revision of the CRDs that lack information or versions that newer revisions have that are already in use on the cluster.

As an administrator, use caution when allowing non-cluster administrators to install Operators self-sufficiently, as explained in "Allowing non-cluster administrators to install Operators". These tenants should only have access to a curated catalog of Operators that are known to not have dependencies. These tenants must also be forced to use the same version line of an Operator, to ensure the CRDs do not change. This requires the use of namespace-scoped catalogs and likely disabling the global default catalogs.

Operator colocation and Operator groups

Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) handles OLM-managed Operators that are installed in the same namespace, meaning their Subscription resources are colocated in the same namespace, as related Operators. Even if they are not actually related, OLM considers their states, such as their version and update policy, when any one of them is updated.

For more information on Operator colocation and using Operator groups effectively, see Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) → Multitenancy and Operator colocation.